When the lumen of the arteries is narrowed due to the formation of an atherosclerotic plaque, a diagnosis of stenosing atherosclerosis is made. It preferentially affects the coronary, peripheral and cerebral vessels, leading to tissue ischemia. Clinical manifestations are: angina pectoris, dyscirculatory encephalopathy, intermittent claudication.
For the treatment of drugs used to reduce cholesterol in the blood, antiplatelet agents and vasodilators.
Read in this article.
Causes of stenosing atherosclerosis
Despite the fact that the role of many factors in the development of atherosclerosis is considered definitively proven, this disease is not fully understood. Until now, it was not possible to establish the reason why stenotic atherosclerosis in some patients affects the heart, and in others, the vessels of the limbs or the brain. There is also no unity in determining the provoking effect, after which the rapid progression of signs of the disease begins.
The general opinion among scientists is noted when identifying conditions in which the risk of damage to the arterial wall increases. These include:
- alcohol and nicotine addiction,
- elderly age,
- burdened heredity
- arterial hypertension,
- excess cholesterol in food,
- violation of the ratio of cholesterol fractions,
- stressful situations
- lack of movement
- chronic infections.
When several factors are combined in one patient, the process of artery blockage begins at a younger age, it is more severe and is accompanied by complications - heart attack, stroke, gangrene of the extremities.
And here more about atherosclerosis of the neck vessels.
Symptoms of the disease
Clinical manifestations of stenosing atherosclerosis occur when the lumen of the large and medium arteries narrows by more than half. The immediate cause of this process is the deposition of low and very low density lipoprotein complexes in the inner lining of the vessel. Once it has appeared, cholesterol conglomerates grow, develop from a fatty spot to atherocalcinosis, gradually reducing blood flow to the tissues.
Cerebral atherosclerosis (BCA, carotid arteries)
Brain cells are fed through the brachiocephalic artery system (BCA). These include the brachiocephalic trunk (right common carotid and subclavian) and left branches of the same name. If plaque formation occurs in one of them (most often at the branch site of the common carotid), then the patient is diagnosed with atherosclerosis of the BCA.
It can be nestenosiruyuschim only at an early stage of development, when the cholesterol stain has the appearance of a strip and does not reach half the diameter of the vessel. Virtually all such processes become stenotic over time.
The earliest signs of chronic insufficiency of blood flow to the brain are:
- constant weakness
- rapid fatigue under normal loads
- difficulty concentrating
- emotional instability
- sleepiness by day and sleeplessness by night,
- weakening of memory
- slow thinking
- noise in ears.
As the cerebral ischemia progresses, memorization and analysis of information is disturbed, the emotional background changes - patients become irritable, suspicious, and prone to depressive reactions. Constant tinnitus, impaired vision and hearing, unsteady gait, and hand trembling reflect a further reduction in blood flow.
At this stage, there is a loss of interest in any kind of activity, a loss of ability to work effectively. The onset of dementia is characterized by the following deviations:
- low intelligence,
- memory losses,
- unintelligible speech
- loss of interest in others,
- loss of self-care and personal hygiene.
Cerebral symptoms in such cases are as follows:
- headache with nausea or vomiting,
- progressive impairment of consciousness - from the state of stupor to coma,
- loss of ability for independent movement in limbs,
- skewed face
- speech changes
- difficulty swallowing.
In the chronic course of stenosing atherosclerosis in the early stages, the patient develops pain in the muscles of the lower leg when walking, intermittent numbness and increased sensitivity of the feet to cold. As the lumen of the artery narrows, the pain worries with a lesser load, the skin becomes pale, and then the purple-bluish color.
The syndrome of intermittent claudication increases when climbing the stairs, at first it only occurs when walking for long distances, and then the patient cannot even pass 25 meters without stopping.
Severe atherosclerosis and acute blockage can lead to gangrene of the leg and the need for amputation. The threat of such a severe complication is evidenced by long non-healing ulcers on the legs, the cessation of arterial pulsation on the foot.
Reduced blood flow in the coronary arteries causes an attack of pain in the heart - angina. It is characterized by the appearance of unpleasant sensations behind the sternum in the form of constriction, burning. The intensity of the pain syndrome varies from moderate to unbearable, the pain can spread to the area of the shoulder blades, left arm, neck. Transient disturbances of coronary blood flow are observed after intense physical exertion, stress, at night.
At the time of the attack there is a shortage of air, cold hands and numbness, the pulse becomes irregular, fluctuations in blood pressure are possible. Long-term pain can mean the development of a heart attack. Complications of stenocardia include replacement of functioning cardiac tissue with connective tissue (cardiosclerosis) and an increase in heart failure.
See the video about stenosing atherosclerosis, its symptoms and treatment:
Echo signs and other indicators of the presence of the disease
One of the diagnostic methods that helps to investigate the patency of arterial vessels, to assess the degree of stenosis (narrowing) is echocardiography - ultrasound in duplex scanning mode. It helps to detect the presence of atherosclerotic plaque, its size and relationship with the diameter of the artery, circulatory disorders in the anatomical region. Signs of non-nestosing process are:
- detection of cholesterol deposits occupying less than 50% of the artery lumen,
- plaque is in the early stages of formation,
- main blood flow slightly weakened.
Important information in case of atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries can be obtained using an ECG - at the height of the attack, the ST segment decreases, and T becomes negative, and rhythm and conduction disturbances appear.
Accelerated pulse on the background of an attack indicates an exertional angina, and a normal one indicates a spontaneous form. Detailed diagnosis of the state of the coronary circulation is carried out using stress tests and daily monitoring of ECG.
Coronary angiography, angiography of cerebral or peripheral arteries helps with high accuracy to identify blood flow disorders, the place of blockage and, most importantly, the state of the bypass (collateral ways) and microcirculation in the capillaries. It is necessarily prescribed before the operation to select the right technology. In addition to the classic X-ray control, MRI angiography is used.
Laboratory diagnosis of atherosclerosis involves the following studies:
- blood chemistry,
- lipid profile
- determination of creatine phosphokinase, troponin, ALT and AST with suspected myocardial infarction.
Treatment of stenosing atherosclerosis
Regardless of the location of atherosclerosis, patients with impaired cholesterol levels are prescribed a special diet. It limits animal fat, canned food, sausage, industrial-made sauces, margarine, butter, by-products, and semi-finished products. The menu should have a sufficient amount of raw and boiled vegetables, cereal from whole grains, fruits.
To normalize the composition of the blood used drugs acting on lipid metabolism - Simgal, Lovastatin, Zokor, nicotinic acid.
Aspirin and Tiklid are recommended for the prevention of blood clots. A prerequisite is to maintain normal blood pressure and blood sugar levels.
In cerebral atherosclerosis, vasodilators are also used (Kavinton, Nimotop), preparations for improving microcirculation (Agapurin, Curantil), stimulants of metabolism (Glycine, Bilobil), nootropes for improving memory (Sermion, Lutsettam, Somazina).
With the defeat of the lower extremities, antispasmodics (Xanthynol nicotinate, Halidor), B vitamins, angioprotectors (Vazaprostan, Calcium dobesilate), novocainic blockades for anesthesia are shown, and Streptokinase is administered for blockage with a thrombus.
Nitroglycerin is used to relieve angina pectoris, for continuous treatment - prolonged-acting nitrates (Isoket, Monosan), Sidnopharm, beta-blockers (Concor, Anarilin), calcium antagonists (Isoptin, Corinfar retard), Preductal.
In the event that the drugs did not produce the expected effect, the issue of surgical treatment is decided. The plaque with a part of the inner lining is removed during endarterectomy, the lumen of the artery expands with a balloon and a stent is implanted, a vein or prosthesis is sutured in place of the affected part, bypass paths are laid (shunting).
The success of any method of treatment of atherosclerosis depends on how you managed to get rid of the main risk factors - smoking, alcohol, physical inactivity, obesity, stress. Nutrition and exercise are important conditions to prevent the development of severe complications of atherosclerosis.
It is required to control and compensate for high blood pressure, high cholesterol and glucose, blood coagulation with medicines.
And here more about the obliterating atherosclerosis of the vessels of the lower extremities.
Stenosing atherosclerosis occurs with a narrowing of the diameter of the artery by more than 50%. It occurs in violation of lipid metabolism in patients at risk of vascular disease. With the defeat of the coronary arteries, angina attacks occur, if plaques form in the vessels of the lower extremities, then intermittent claudication develops.
Cerebral atherosclerosis is characterized by blockage of the brachiocephalic blood flow pathways, its clinical manifestations - dyscirculatory encephalopathy. Drugs, operative methods are prescribed for treatment, diet is a prerequisite, physical activity and getting rid of bad habits, correction of hypertension, obesity, and diabetes.
Detected cholesterol plaques in the carotid artery are a serious threat to the brain. Treatment often involves surgery. Removal by traditional methods may be ineffective. How to clean with a diet?
Atherosclerosis of the neck vessels has severe consequences for the patient. It is more important to prevent the development of the disease. What if the disease has already begun?
If suddenly there is lameness, pain while walking, then these signs may indicate obliterating atherosclerosis of the vessels of the lower extremities. In the neglected state of the disease, which takes place in 4 stages, an amputation operation may be required. What are the possible treatment options?
As a result of atherosclerosis and other diseases, carotid stenosis may occur. It can be critical and hemodynamically significant, have different degrees. Symptoms suggest treatment options, including when surgery is needed. What is the prognosis for life?
Cerebral arteriosclerosis of the brain vessels threatens the lives of patients. Under his influence, a person changes even in character. What to do?
It is believed that the age of atherosclerosis is the first year of life. That is, it accumulates and begins to develop literally from the cradle. Risk factors (smoking, obesity, stress, heredity, and others) lead to the fact that the disease can be stated both in young and in old age.
After 65 years of age, nonstenose atherosclerosis of the abdominal aorta and iliac veins occurs in 1 in 20 people. What treatment is permissible in this case?
Atherosclerosis of the renal arteries develops due to age, bad habits, overweight. Initially, the symptoms are hidden, if they manifest, the disease progresses greatly. In this case, drug treatment or surgery is necessary.
Generalized atherosclerosis develops due to excessive cholesterol deposition. Also isolated unspecified atherosclerosis. The disease is dangerous because it can cause death.
What is stenosing arteriosclerosis?
Stenosing atherosclerosis of the arteries is a pathology of the functioning of the vessels, in which atherosclerotic plaques form on their inner walls, constricting the bloodstream. This process does not occur in a short time. Such a disease is the result of long-term deposition of cholesterol, the formation of calcifications and the growth of connective tissue.
The mechanism of stenosing atherosclerosis is reduced to the fact that low-density fats accumulate in the blood. Sooner or later they stick to the smallest irregularities inside the vessels and form plaques. It is the last and clog arteries, leaving less and less clearance for blood flow. The result of this disease is a violation of the blood supply, ischemia of tissues and organs.
Description of the disease and the mechanism of development
Stenosing atherosclerosis is a pathological process that spreads to the main arteries of the body. The mechanism of its occurrence is quite simple. Under the influence of certain factors, free fats (cholesterol) begin to be deposited in the vessel walls and plaques form. The disease goes through several stages of development, the final stage is the narrowing of the artery to a minimum (stenosis). As a result, tissues and organs that are dependent on the area of impaired blood supply are deficient in oxygen and nutrients.
The problem of the proliferation of cholesterol plaques and connective tissue between them affects various major arteries. Taking into account the place of development of the pathological process, there are several varieties of the disease. The most vulnerable are the peripheral arteries of the lower extremities, the brain and the coronary aorta of the heart. The lack of timely treatment usually leads to irreversible consequences: myocardial infarction, gangrene of the legs, stroke, thromboembolism with damage to internal organs.
The development of atherosclerotic lesions of the main arteries is due to the action of three factors:
- Violation of fat metabolism. When the system of synthesis and transportation of cholesterol in the body fails, the excess of this substance begins to be deposited on the walls of blood vessels.In the role of a trigger mechanism may be somatic diseases, unbalanced nutrition, obesity.
- Hereditary predisposition If close relatives have been diagnosed with stenosing atherosclerosis, the probability of occurrence of this disease increases several times.
- Decreased elasticity of the vascular walls. Cholesterol plaques cannot form on a smooth and healthy surface. The following disorders contribute to the damage to the vascular wall: diabetes mellitus, a sedentary lifestyle, and smoking.
In the presence of one or several factors listed above, it is necessary to pay special attention to one's own health, to undergo preventive examinations more often.
Manifestations of cerebral artery stenosis
Brachiocephalic arteries are large vessels extending from the aortic arch toward the brain. Their multiple interlacings form the circle of Willis. It provides a complete blood supply to the brain.
When an obstacle in the form of an atherosclerotic plaque forms on one of the sections of the Willisieva Circle, development of stenosis is indicated. This disease affects the entire blood supply system of the brain. Lack of timely treatment can lead to hypoxia or stroke. Symptoms of the pathological process depend on the number of atherosclerotic plaques in the arterial bed.
At the outset, the disease is asymptomatic. If the lumen of the vessel is blocked by a plaque of 50% or more, the patient may notice the appearance of uncharacteristic disorders. Among them are:
- periodic dizziness due to lower blood pressure,
- emotional lability with a predominance of depressive mood,
- hearing and visual problems (tinnitus, hearing impairment, the appearance of flies before the eyes),
- chronic fatigue syndrome
- numbness of fingers,
- violation of thermoregulation.
These symptoms initially have virtually no effect on quality of life. Many patients simply ignore them. Progressive stenosing atherosclerosis of the brachiocephalic arteries leads to seek medical help.
Manifestations of cardiac stenosis
Oxygen and nutrients come to the heart through the coronary arteries. Atherosclerotic lesions of these vessels pose a serious threat to the main muscle of the body, affecting its rhythm and fullness of contractions. In this disease, patients usually complain of pain in the retrosternal space. First they appear after exercise or stress. Over time, discomfort does not leave a person even at rest. The duration of painful attack is about 30 minutes.
Myocardial infarction is considered an acute manifestation of the pathological process. The disease is accompanied by severe pain in the heart, which can not be stopped by the tablet "Nitroglycerin." Blood pressure drops, resulting in severe dizziness, weakness. Atherosclerosis stenosing, affecting the coronary arteries, can lead to serious complications. These include cardiac aneurysm, cardiogenic shock and the gap of the muscle itself. Especially often doctors diagnose sudden death syndrome.
Manifestations of lower limb artery stenosis
Through the femoral artery, blood flows to the most extreme points of the body, located on the feet. Stenosing atherosclerosis of the lower extremities ranks third in the frequency of occurrence. The clinical manifestations of this form of the disease are diverse. Therefore, it is advisable to consider the development of the pathological process in stages:
- At the initial stage, the patient is worried about the feeling of coldness, burning or tingling in the area of the feet. The skin on the legs visibly pale.
- The second stage is characterized by the appearance of intermittent claudication. One limb when walking or playing sports begins to get tired before the other. Gradually, discomfort develops in the area of the calf muscles, persistent cyanosis appears.
- In the next stage, the intensity of intermittent claudication noticeably increases. It becomes difficult for the patient to travel the usual way without stopping. Often, patients complain of pain in the toes, which does not disappear at rest. The skin on the foot gets a marble shade, can crack and thin.
- In the fourth stage, the lameness becomes so pronounced that the person is forced to make stops every 50 steps of the way. Perhaps the appearance of trophic ulcers, swelling. Severe pain in the legs interferes with night rest.
You can not wait for the irreversible effects of the disease in the form of gangrene. If you have symptoms of circulatory disorders in the legs (weakness, intermittent claudication), an urgent need to consult a doctor. If a specialist confirms stenosing atherosclerosis of the arteries of the lower extremities, treatment will be prescribed immediately.
In order to promptly detect the disease and begin its therapy, all people over 40 years old, doctors recommend once a year to undergo prophylactic examinations. It is enough to pass a blood test for the following indicators:
- cholesterol, lipoproteins, triglycerides,
These parameters may indirectly indicate a violation of the protein-lipid metabolism, which provokes the development of pathology.
Stenosing atherosclerosis of the arteries of the brain, heart or lower limbs is easily diagnosable. To do this, the patient is prescribed a comprehensive examination, which includes the following procedures:
- intravenous / arterial angiography of the vessels using contrast,
- Doppler study
- triplex scanning.
Based on the results of the examination, the doctor can confirm the preliminary diagnosis. After that, the patient is prescribed treatment.
Principles of therapy
The treatment of stenosing atherosclerosis depends largely on the stage at which the patient develops the ailment and see a doctor. At the initial stage, in addition to drug therapy, you should try to change your lifestyle. It is important to give up bad habits, try to rest more. Otherwise, medication will only slow down the progression of the disease, but will not stop it completely.
Without fail, the doctor prescribes a patient a diet (table number 10), rich in plant foods. It is usually recommended for patients with hypertension or heart failure. If you adhere to this diet, you can not only reduce the amount of cholesterol consumed, but also remove its excess from the body. In this case, you can not go on a diet for weight loss. Meals should be balanced and complete. Otherwise, the therapy will not bring the desired result.
Patients with a diagnosis of stenosing atherosclerosis of the lower extremities, treatment should be supplemented by sports. Preference should be given to Nordic walking or swimming. At the first sign of fatigue in the legs, you should immediately rest without overloading the body.
Treatment of atherosclerosis can not be imagined without the use of medicines. Usually, patients with this diagnosis are prescribed the following groups of drugs:
- Disaggregant. Prevent the formation of blood clots in the bloodstream.
- Antispasmodics. Improve blood circulation in the body.
- Medications for the normalization of the rheological properties of blood. First, prescribe a drip of the drug, then replace it with a tablet form.
All medicines are selected for each patient individually. The doctor must take into account the stage of the disease and its form.
Stenosing atherosclerosis in the advanced stage requires an operation. Surgical intervention allows you to restore the normal vascular permeability, remove cholesterol plaques. For this purpose, bypass surgery, stenting or angioplasty is performed. The listed manipulations are carried out both endoscopically, and the open way with use of the general anesthesia.
Consequences of the disease
The consequences of this disease can be very serious and life threatening. For example, stenosing atherosclerosis of the arteries of the brain often provokes the development of a stroke. Of course, this complication does not appear at all. It all depends on the characteristics of the body, predisposition to the occurrence of the disease. Studies show that approximately 70% of the population over 60 years old complains of various manifestations of atherosclerosis. This pathology is the main cause of cerebral insufficiency syndrome.
Stenosing atherosclerosis of the vessels of the lower extremities also does not always have a favorable prognosis. If the artery is completely blocked, the likelihood of ischemic gangrene increases. Especially often the pathology occurs in people with diabetes mellitus, since this disease accelerates the process of stenosis.
Begin to engage in the prevention of stenotic atherosclerosis is necessary from early childhood. All people who have an unhealthy lifestyle are at risk of getting the disease.
- hygienic regime
- moderate sports activities
- adherence to work and rest.
Do not forget about proper nutrition. The diet should consist mainly of lean meat and seafood, as well as plant foods.
A healthy lifestyle implies the abandonment of harmful habits. However, it is better not to start smoking and drinking alcohol.
The listed recommendations should be observed both during therapy, and before it. Such tips can avoid the complications of the disease. When the first symptoms indicating stenosing atherosclerosis appear, you should consult a doctor and check the vessels. If necessary, the doctor will prescribe the appropriate treatment.
What is stenotic arteriosclerosis
Often, patients, having heard about the diagnosis of stenosing atherosclerosis, wonder: "What is it?". Stenosing atherosclerosis is an atherosclerotic lesion of the lining of the vascular bed of most vital organs. The development of the disease is associated with a persistent increase in blood cholesterol. At the same time, an imbalance increases between the levels of HDL and LDL, which causes the formation of fatty plaques that stick to the inner lining of the arteries. This leads to a significant reduction in the quality of blood circulation in the target organs.
Vascular changes in pathology is irreversible. The lumen of the vessel is significantly reduced, and over time, its full stenosis develops. This is what distinguishes the stenosing version of the disease from the non-stenotic one. Stenosing atherosclerosis most often occurs in people of mature and elderly age, having one or more risk factors for its development.
Symptoms and causes of pathology
In most cases, at the initial stages, stenotic atherosclerosis proceeds without visible clinical signs. Only as the disease progresses do certain symptoms occur. Clinical manifestations and possible consequences depend on the vascular elements of which organs are involved in the pathological process. Whatever area of the body is affected by stenosing atherosclerosis, there appears discomfort in the form of pain. This indicates a significant impaired blood flow.
Stenosing atherosclerosis does not develop from scratch. Exists a number of reasonsleading to the emergence of this multiorgan pathology. These include:
- the presence of harmful addictions (alcohol abuse, smoking tobacco or hookah),
- nutrition enriched with animal fats
- lack of adequate physical activity
- functional and organic liver damage,
- violation of carbohydrate metabolism,
- belonging to a strong sex (women are less susceptible to atherosclerosis),
- age over 45 years.
At the first signs of stenosing atherosclerosis, you should consult a doctor who will prescribe the necessary examination. The gold standard for diagnosing stenotic atherosclerosis is a Doppler study of blood vessels. It is the echographic signs of blood flow that indicate the presence of this pathology.
Carotid atherosclerosis is not uncommon. In this variant of the pathology, fatty plaques are deposited on the inner surface of the left and right OCA, as well as their branches, which are located inside and outside the skull. The outer branches of the carotid arteries carry blood to the tissues of the facial skull. Stenosis of this area of the vascular bed will be manifested by numbness of the face, a violation of all types of sensitivity of this area.
Atherosclerotic damage to the intracranial branches of the carotid arteries is more dangerous. Due to the fact that they carry blood to the brain, a partial deterioration in its perfusion is possible. This is manifested by frequent headaches, occasional fainting, constant feeling of dizziness. Pathological damage to the carotid arteries on both sides often leads to disruption of the blood supply to the optic nerves, which can result in complete blindness.
Vessels of the lower extremities
The most common area of atherosclerotic lesions of a stenosing nature is the arteries of the legs. The disease is diffuse and initially does not manifest itself. Gradually, a violation of the sensitivity of this area begins to appear and grow, the skin becomes cold to the touch. As the pathological process progresses, patients notice pain as if walking, which causes them to limp. At the advanced stages, the claudication increases, the feeling of numbness, pain does not pass even with complete rest.
If time does not slow the progression of the disease, it leads to severe trophic disorders. The soft tissues of the lower extremities cease to receive the necessary amount of oxygen and nutrients with blood, as a result of which their death begins. The end result of atherosclerotic vascular damage to the legs is the development of gangrene, which can cause the death of the patient.
A no less dangerous pathology is stenosing atherosclerosis of the main arteries of the head. Massive atherosclerotic damage to the supply vessels of the brain often leads to ischemic stroke. In patients with such a localization of the disease, headaches often occur, there is a decrease in cognitive-mnestic function, vestibular disorders are possible. In severe cases, aphasia develops, patients lose the ability to control their feelings and emotions, lose the ability to self-care, and do not recognize others.
Other body systems
Sometimes doctors diagnose stenosing atherosclerosis of the brachiocephalic trunk of the vertebral arteries. This area of the circulatory system carries blood to the occipital region of the head and the cervical spine. The narrowing of the lumen of these vessels is manifested by a headache in the occiput, deterioration of vision. Severe damage leads to impaired blood supply to the cerebellum, which manifests as a violation of coordination function.
Vascular branches extending from the brachiocephalic trunk carry blood to the right arm.Their defeat leads to impaired blood flow to the upper limb, which is manifested by its numbness, cooling, and atrophy of the muscle layer. Over time, trophic soft tissues are disrupted, which causes their massive extinction.
Symptoms of stenosing atherosclerosis of arteries
As mentioned above, stenosing atherosclerosis of the arteries develops slowly. The symptoms of the disease appear at the same pace.
The first "bells" look like this:
Mood swings appear, the general emotional background becomes unstable,
The degree of concentration decreases, absent-mindedness appears
There are headaches associated with dizziness, up to fainting,
Forgetfulness arises, mnemic functions begin to suffer,
Sleep is disturbed, insomnia appears or, on the contrary, constant sleepiness,
Decreases the level of performance.
If you experience at least one of these symptoms, you should consult a doctor. The initial stage of the disease allows the use of effective treatments.
At later stages, the symptoms of stenosing atherosclerosis of the arteries are even more serious:
At the first stage, there is a weakness in the reaction of the pupils to a light stimulus, the pathological manifestation of reflexes,
The second stage is characterized by significant impairment of memory and attention. Reduced performance and learning ability. At this stage, micro-strokes occur, causing dizziness and fainting. Often these conditions lead to total or partial paralysis,
In the third stage of development of stenosing atherosclerosis of the arteries, there is an irreversible disruption of cognitive processes due to extensive ischemia of brain areas.
Only a specialist can determine the stage of the disease, so it is not possible to postpone seeking medical help!
Causes of stenosing arteriosclerosis
There are several causes of stenosing atherosclerosis of the arteries.
The main factor, and the most common - is an atherosclerotic process associated with the formation of cholesterol plaques on the walls of blood vessels. As a result, the lumen of the vessel is narrowed or completely blocked. The consequences of this are strokes, blood clots and other serious complications.
The provoking factors for the development of stenosing atherosclerosis of the arteries include:
Obesity of varying severity
The presence of bad habits, especially smoking,
Gender signs (according to statistics, men are prone to the occurrence and development of atherosclerosis 4 times more than women),
Maintaining a sedentary lifestyle.
With rare exceptions, a person is able to eliminate these factors, because the prevention of the disease is a guarantee of a healthy and long life!
Diagnosis of stenotic arteriosclerosis
Diagnostic measures may include a variety of procedures:
Discussion of the patient’s lifestyle and habits
General analysis of blood and urine to detect a possible inflammatory process in the body,
Biochemical and immunological blood test,
Lipidogram to determine the level of fat in the body,
ECG and ultrasound of the heart,
Angiography to assess blood flow in the vessels
Consultation of specialists, depending on the identified area of atherosclerosis.
Of course, the whole complex of diagnostic measures may not be necessary. The examination is based on an individual plan and depends on the stage of development of the disease.
Signs of stenosing atherosclerosis directly depend on the site of the disease and can be detected easily because blood circulates throughout the body and if there is such a problem, plaque-forming particles will be in its composition. As for the intensity, in different areas it can be expressed to a greater or lesser degree.
- If the ailment has touched the arteries of the lower limbs, the symptoms will be localized in the legs. Initially, a person may feel numbness, chilliness, and tingling sensation. Functional disorders occur as the situation worsens. Light lameness may become permanent. If no action is taken, atrophic ulcers, swelling and redness of the feet will appear. Symptoms of gangrene indicate terminal stage.
- Neurological symptoms indicate atherosclerosis of the carotid arteries, characterized by headaches, fatigue, organic vision problems and memory loss. Circulatory disorders in such a situation are expressed by problems of speech clarity and asymmetry of the facial muscles.
- Signs of atherosclerosis of the brachiocephalic arteries are more pronounced and detailed, since due to the localization of the brachiocephalic artery in the vertebral trunk, the lesion may be atherosclerotic and mechanical.
The most common symptoms are nausea and dizziness, which only turns worse when the head turns.