Myopia of the eye

The role of the eyes and vision in a person’s life is hard to underestimate. A person treats his vision as something ordinary and not so important. But if a disease suddenly catches up, then only begins to think and appreciate what nature has given him.

There are diseases that are not fatal to humans, but can easily deprive him of a visible perception of the surrounding space. These are diseases of the organs of vision, such as myopathy and myopia or, more simply, myopia.

Description of the disease

Myopia is an eye disease in which visual acuity is impaired. Today in the world every third person is subject to this disease. Due to the fact that there is a change in the refraction of the eye, vision and deteriorates. Man ceases to see clearly into the distance.

All things seen in a blurry state, but objects near do not lose their clear outlines. With myopia, a beam of light enters the eye, and the focus is not on the surface of the retina, but in front of it.

For this reason, the picture is distorted. Doctors, depending on the cause of myopia, classified myopia into four groups:

  1. Axial.
  2. Refractive.
  3. Mixed
  4. Combined.

By origin, myopia is most often acquired and quite rare congenital. If it is congenital, it is necessarily accompanied by a violation of the development of the organ of vision in a very early period or pathology.

Most often the person suffers acquired myopia due to the prevailing social conditions that dramatically affect eye health. During the development of a young organism, myopia can progress, which further leads to a sharp deterioration in vision.

The first signs of the onset of the disease can be: a person begins to squint, there is a desire to sit closer to the monitor or the screen, while reading or working, the head is lowered. When working at a fairly close distance, eye and headache often occur.

For parents, this is a very important moment to do not miss the symptoms of a child, because early treatment gives a completely different, more encouraging effect. And besides, it will not give later complications with eyes and eyesight.

There are three degrees of myopia:

  • Weak myopia - up to three diopters.
  • The average myopia is from three to six diopters.
  • High myopia - more than six diopters.

The causes of myopia

The causes of eye myopia may be as follows:

  1. One of the main causes of myopia is the presence of genetic predisposition. A child, whose parents are short-sighted, is more likely to become short-sighted at a fairly early age with a probability of up to fifty percent.
  2. A common cause is intraocular pressure. In myopia, the eyeball has a much larger size, which is associated with high pressure.
  3. Accommodation is the ability of the eye to adapt to the process of progression of myopia.
  4. The development of myopia is promoted by various adverse factors of the human environment. Studies have found that it is more common in children living in cities than among those living in suburban areas. This fact affects the development of myopia more than the absence of normal physical exertion or, conversely, excessive exercise.

In fact, there are many more reasons. But the main factor that influences the development of the disease remains genetic or genetic predisposition. For this reason, the identification by parents of the first signs in a child should force them to start correcting and treating myopia without delay.

Eye myopathy

The reasons for the development of myopathy are such reasons as:

  • The cause of the development of myopathy of the eye at any age can be a dysfunction of muscle tissue and thus provoke the inability to retain the necessary substance - keratin. For this reason, the muscle tone is weakened, and further death of muscle tissue may begin. The process starts due to metabolic disorders.
  • Myopathy can be inherited.
  • Excessive loads also affect the cause of the disease.
  • If an incorrect treatment of visual defects was performed in relation to the patient, then this moment can lead to myopathy.
  • Disruption of metabolic metabolism due to the lack of essential trace elements, vitamins and certain minerals can lead to myopathy.
  • Anatomy of the eye - a defect in the structure of the eye.

Disease treatment

There are very effective options that can correct or completely restore vision in myopia. Treatment with medicines allows for course treatment for each patient with myopia. The progression of the disease also helps suspend physiotherapy.

Myopia responds well to contact lens adjustment or in a simpler way - with glasses. Eye surgery remains the most promising treatment. But there are age restrictions - only from eighteen years and up to the period of forty five years. Children up to eighteen more suitable corrective exercises for the eyes or special drops.

A little worth talking about what eye drops improve the patient's vision. Drops remain the most gentle means of prevention and treatment, as well as help restore vision.

Special eye drops can only pick and write specialist. Let us consider the most prescribed eye drops to improve vision in myopia:

  1. Drops "Taufon" are appointed as soon as the first signs of myopia appear. They can be used as a prophylactic agent for people with hereditary signs of myopia. By their composition, they are equal to amino acids, which include an additional component - sulfur. Amino acid is able to independently produce in the right quantities in the organs of vision. But due to the disease production is significantly reduced. Drops can accelerate metabolic processes and replenish the desired acid to normal. Taurine contained in these drops triggers recovery processes in the organs of vision.
  2. The drug "Emoxipin" is a synthetic antioxidant. He is perfectly capable of restoring and protecting the vessels of the eyes. Protects against negative effects on the retina and cornea.
  3. "Quinax" - this is a drop, which is a vitamin preparation for the eyes. It consists of retinol and ascorbic acid. This complex of vitamins is very important for the healthy functioning of the organs of vision.
  4. There are a number of vitamin preparations that improve vision in myopia. These are “Riboflamin”, “Focus in”, “Visiomax”. These drops perfectly relieve eye strain and contain only natural components.

But it is very important not to forget that myopia is pretty serious chronic illness. It requires close attention and constant supervision from a specialist. Such a responsible approach to eye health will help avoid complications in the form of poor vision or its complete loss.

External physical causes Edit

The most common cause is an enlarged eyeball, so the retina is located beyond the focal plane. A rarer variant is when the refracting system of the eye focuses the rays more strongly than necessary (and, as a result, they converge not on the retina, but in front of it). In any of the options, when viewing distant objects, a fuzzy, blurred image appears on the retina.

An increase in the length of the eyeball can be genetically determined and progress in adolescence.

Also, myopia can be caused by spasm of the ciliary muscle (at a young age), keratoconus (change in the shape of the cornea), lens displacement in trauma (subluxation, dislocation), lens sclerosis (in old age).

Concomitant factors for the appearance of myopia include early and intense visual stresses at close range, prolonged use of computers and gadgets, insufficient physical development, endocrine changes in the body during puberty, lack of calcium, zinc and selenium, hypovitaminosis, reduced immunity, poor ecology and improper nutrition and respiration, enhancing the catabolic processes of connective tissue.

Traditional Approach Edit

In most cases, myopia is accompanied by an increase in the anterior-posterior size of the eyeball. And if time does not take action, then myopia progresses, which can lead to serious irreversible changes in the eye and significant loss of vision. And as a result - to partial or complete disability.

The traditional treatment approach based on the use of medical glasses "for myopia", involves the restoration of the properties of the eyeball and lens during relaxation.

It is possible to improve the clarity of surrounding objects with the help of glasses or contact lenses (only while wearing), orthokeratological lenses (for several hours after removal) or refractive surgery.

The US National Institute of Health claims that there is no way to prevent myopia, and the use of glasses and contact lenses does not affect the progression of this disease.

Unconventional approach Edit

The approach that took place half a century ago suggested the use of medical glasses "for long-sightedness". It was believed that this practice forces the visual apparatus to shift the focus in the right direction, thereby gradually restoring vision. Exceptions are cases of eye strain, where such glasses can only worsen the situation.

The disadvantage of the approach is the need to consciously degrade your eyesight while wearing glasses (it is recommended 6 hours a day during periods of high static load that implies focusing on a single object, for example, a screen or a book) and the short duration of the effect if the patient does not make changes lifestyle (long reading or writing, long work at the computer, the lack of regular exercises on refocusing, etc.).

In ophthalmology, it is common to divide myopia into the following types:

  • congenital (myopia congenita) - a rare form of myopia, ascertained from the first days of life and due to abnormal development of the eyeball,
  • high (myopia alta) - myopia, the degree of which exceeds 6.25 diopters,
  • combinative (myopia combinativa) - usually myopia of a small degree, at which the refractive power of the optical system of the eye and the length of its optical axis do not exceed the values ​​characteristic of emmetropia, but their combination does not provide normal refraction,
  • false (spasmodic, pseudomyopia, myopia falsa) - myopia that occurs when the tone of the ciliary muscle is increased (spasmaaccommodation) and disappears with its normalization,
  • transient (myopia transitoria) is a type of false myopia that occurs during the development of various diseases of the body (diabetes mellitus) and / or as a result of exposure to drugs (sulfa drugs),
  • nocturnal (twilight, myopia nocturna) - myopia associated with emmetropic refraction of the eye, which occurs when there is a lack of light and disappears with increasing illumination,
  • axial (myopia axialis) - myopia, manifested with a large length of the optical axis of the eye,
  • Complicated (myopia complicata) - myopia, accompanied by anatomical changes in the eye, leading to loss of vision,
  • progressive (myopia progressiva) - myopia, characterized by a gradual increase in its degree due to stretching of the posterior part of the eye,
  • refractive (optical, myopia refractiva) - myopia, due to the excessive refractive power of the optical system of the eye.

By severity of the disease in myopia there are three degrees:

  • weak: to –3 diopters,
  • average: from −3.25 to −6 diopters,
  • high: above −6 diopters.

High myopia can reach very significant values: −15, −20, −30 D.

With a weak and moderate degree of myopia, as a rule, a full or almost complete optical correction is made for the distance, and weaker (by 1–2 diopters) lenses are used for working at close distances.

Myopia may be congenital, and may appear over time, sometimes it begins to increase - to progress. With a high degree of myopia, a constant correction, the value of which for distance and near is determined by tolerance. If glasses do not sufficiently increase visual acuity, contact correction is recommended.

Currently, there are 5 recognized methods of myopia correction, namely: glasses, contact lenses, laser vision correction, refractive lens replacement (lensectomy), implantation of phakic lenses, radial keratotomy and keratoplasty, therapeutic simulators. Depending on the degree of myopia, a person may experience a constant need for glasses or a temporary one (only if necessary to discern an object from a distance), for example, when watching TV programs and movies, while driving or while working at a computer.

With myopia, the strength of the glasses and contact lenses is indicated by a negative number. Refractive surgery can reduce or completely eliminate the need to use glasses or contact lenses. Most often, such operations are done using special lasers.

Myopia Correction - Photorefractive Keratectomy (PRK).

In recent years, a new technology of photorefractive keratoectomy (PRK) using excimer lasers with a wavelength of 193 nm has been of particular interest in correcting myopia.

Since the first communication in 1983 on the use of an excimer laser for the correction of myopia, an intensive study of the possibility of this method of treatment in the practice of eye clinics has been underway.

At present, the good results of the “classical PRK” are most predictable with myopia up to 6.0 diopters. At higher degrees of myopia, the TransFRC method should be applied, otherwise there is a likelihood of regression of myopia, which, however, can be corrected by repeated intervention.

Correction of myopia - laser keratomilelosis (LASIK), (LASIK).

Laser keratomileuse is a combined laser-surgical operation to correct myopia (farsightedness, astigmatism). The operation is the most high-tech and most comfortable for the patient, as it allows in the shortest possible time and without pain to return the maximum possible vision without glasses and contact lenses. In some cases, correction of myopia (up to −15 D), hyperopia (up to +10 D), as well as many cases of astigmatism is possible.

Laser correction - technology of operation.

It should be understood that the correction is in fact not a restoration of vision. The correction does not cure myopia itself, but allows compensating for it by changing the profile of the upper layer of the cornea with the help of a laser. In the top layer of the cornea, an incision is made in the form of a flap and a laser controlled by a computer changes the optical surface of the cornea under the incised area for a few seconds, causing the image to focus precisely on the retina, thereby completely returning normal vision. Then the incised flap is returned to the site, avoiding damage to the upper layer of the cornea.Some side effects are possible, one of them is the destruction of the vitreous body. To minimize the risks to the operation, a thorough examination is necessary.

Myopia correction - therapeutic simulators.

At the moment, the effectiveness of treatment of myopia by any means has not been proven by using various simulators to stimulate accommodation of the eye. Apparatus treatment of vision is practiced only in some CIS countries. This method is not considered by professional ophthalmologists as at least arbitrarily effective way to treat or prevent myopia.

When late treatment or improper correction of myopia may be the progression of the disease and the occurrence of complications, such as the formation of staphyla sclera (protrusion), degeneration and hemorrhage on the retina and vitreous body, in severe cases, their detachment.

Myopia is provided for in article 34 of the disease schedule (approved by the Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation of 04.07.2013 N 565):

  • expiration category "B" (for a limited period) with myopia of any eye on one of the meridians of more than 6.0 diopters (i.e., no less than 6.25),
  • expiration category "D" (not suitable) with myopia more than 12.0 diopters.

During the medical examination of conscripts who have performed laser vision correction, the decision of the commission is determined by the results of an eye examination at the time of the call. If the treatment results are satisfactory or if myopia remains up to 6.0 PDTR, the young person is given an A or B category, depending on the degree of myopia.

Causes of myopia

The physiological factors of myopia include the violation of the accommodative muscles of the eye and the shape of its chambers.

Eye myopia is a hereditary disease, but in most cases it can be classified as acquired and some factors contribute to this.

Pregnancy and childbirth.

In some cases, myopia during pregnancy may progress, pregnancy and childbirth can lead to a significant deterioration in vision, and possibly to blindness.

Frequent cases of manifestation of the disease are observed at school age, when the child learns to write and read. In adults, myopia is an adaptive reaction of the eye and is manifested in writers, laboratory assistants, a watchmaker, namely, in people whose professions are supposed to work with objects at close range, with poor lighting. This could include reading in a moving vehicle, lying on a bed, with improper landing at the time of writing.

Violation of intraocular pressure.

Increased or decreased intracranial pressure is the cause of the modification of the shape of the eyeball, which entails not only the development of myopia, but also glaucoma.

Collagen and fibrous fibers of the eyeball when exposed to negative environmental factors or internal disorders of the body (hormonal disruptions) weaken, which leads to a change in the shape of the eyeball.

Myopia is manifested in people with reduced immunity and disorders of the musculoskeletal system, as well as in the presence of brain injuries, after suffering chronic diseases.

Myopia is congenital, and may manifest itself over time and progress.

  • Progressive myopia - This is a disease that affects the quality of life by a sharp drop in visual acuity. In this case, treatment is immediate - it is not only about continuous deterioration of vision, but also the development of serious complications that depend on the degree of myopia - these are cataracts, glaucoma, opacification of the vitreous body, retinal detachment and degeneration.

Comprehensive measures aimed at treatment imply visual regimen, relaxing gymnastics for the muscles of the eyes, training glasses, photostimulation and drug treatment with the help of drops, multivitamins and blueberry tablets.

Sometimes not always prescribed treatment stops the progression of the disease, in this case there is a need for a standard operation - scleroplasty. With its help it is possible mechanically to strengthen the fundus of the eye.

  • Non-progressive myopia does not require treatment, but is eliminated with the help of glasses correction.
  • False myopia or pseudomyopia - develops on the background of increased tone of the ciliary muscle. When the cause is eliminated, normal vision returns instantly.
  • Refractive myopia associated with a large optical power of refraction of the light of the eye.
  • School myopia occurs as a result of long classes and spending a long time at the computer. As a result, the child not only develops myopia, but also chronic fatigue.
  • Night myopia manifests itself with a lack of light and a person's ability to distinguish objects decreases.
  • Axial myopia occurs when the major optical axis of the eye.
  • Complicated Myopia occurs due to eye injury and results in complete loss of vision.

  • Myopia I degree (weak) is diagnosed with vision impairment of up to 3 diopters.

Symptoms of the disease

For a long time myopia runs without symptoms, usually it is detected at medical examinations. But over time, if myopia progresses to a symptom of the following nature

  • for any eye diseases there are severe headaches,
  • constant tiredness of the eyes, even while playing sports.

Symptoms of myopia

As you have probably understood, the main sign of myopia is a decrease in image clarity when viewing distant objects. A person, trying to make the image clearer, squints, straining his eyes, but objects that are close, such a patient sees well. In addition to this obvious symptom, myopia is characterized by eye fatigue and headaches.

As a rule, the first signs of a change in vision begin to appear in a child from seven to twelve years of age. By the way, in women, myopia of the eyes progresses to 20 years, and in men - to 22. And then the vision stabilizes, although it can sometimes worsen.

Degrees of myopia

Specialists in ophthalmology distinguish three degrees of myopia:

  1. The myopia of the eye is weakly fixed if the vision remains at the level of three diopters.
  2. Medium - if the level of vision falls from three to six diopters.
  3. A high degree is characterized by a deterioration in vision of more than six diopters.

Depending on the clinical course, myopia can be progressive or stationary. The first case includes a disease in which an annual increase in the power of a lens by one diopter is required. And this, in turn, can lead to serious complications, including visual disability, requiring surgical intervention.

Stationary (non-progressive myopia) is a disorder of refraction (the process of refraction of light in the organs of vision). It requires only an adjustment of vision and does not require treatment.

What causes eye myopia

According to experts, the manifestations of the disease described are associated with weak accommodation. So called in medicine is the ability to change the refractive capabilities of the eye for the perception of objects that are at different distances. An important role in the development of this pathology is also played by the overvoltage of convergence (this is how the ability of note on the object under consideration to determine the visual axes of the eyes).

Myopia of the eye is provoked to a considerable extent by stretching the back of the eye, which occurs after cessation of its growth. This stretching triggers a change in the anatomical structure of the eye. And especially strongly affect the clarity of vision violations of the retina, as well as the choroid of the eyeball. They lead to changes in the fundus typical of myopia. Stretching is usually accompanied by brittle blood vessels with small bruises in the vitreous and retina. And the slow resolution of these hemorrhages causes turbidity in the vitreous body.

Correction of weak myopia

Myopia of a weak degree in both eyes (up to 3 diopters) is considered in medicine rather than a disease, but a feature of vision. Such a pathology at the present time is, unfortunately, very common. But since it can progress, this vision change cannot be ignored.

Weak myopia is treated with correction. The glasses correct the refractive disorders that provoke a loss of vision. For the correction using scattering glass. By the way, they are suggested to be worn when necessary, since constant wearing can cause an overstrain of accommodation and, as a result, deterioration of vision.

When assigning points, the degree of myopia is always taken into account. Therefore, to avoid errors in false myopia, atropine is instilled into the eyes of children and adolescents, and in a state of relaxation of the ciliary muscle, visual acuity is determined.

In addition to vision correction, special exercises for the eyes are used, as well as medicines that relieve spasms of the eye muscles. It is also important the general strengthening of the body, it has a beneficial effect on the human condition, and therefore, his vision: swimming, therapeutic exercises, massage, etc. Proper nutrition will also help in this fight.

Refractive surgery for weak myopia

A very effective treatment for mild myopia is LASIK, which involves the use of a laser to correct a defect in the cornea. Such a correction allows the light to focus on the retina, and vision becomes normal.

Moderate eye myopia

This degree of myopia is up to 6 diopters. Such patients have to use, as a rule, two pairs of glasses. Some - for distance (with full correction), and others - for reading or work (1–3 diopters less). But in this case, bifocal glasses are used for constant wear. In them, the upper part of the glass is intended for viewing distant objects, the lower - for relatives.

As with poor myopia, moderate myopia may progress. And to avoid this, the patient is offered a surgical intervention. It does not improve vision, but only stops its deterioration. This method is called scleroplasty. It helps to increase the number of vessels and, as a result, improve the nutrition of the posterior pole of the eye, which leads to stabilization of the patient's condition.

What is myopia?

Myopia is a condition that is characterized by an abnormal refraction of the eye. The main optical focus is located between the lens and the retina of the organ of vision. Due to this, a person begins to see worse objects located far away. This pathology has a synonym - myopia, as a person with myopia sees much better finding objects.

According to statistics, myopia is a very common disease, more than 29% of the world's population suffer from it. And often the pathology begins to develop in adolescence.

The vision of a person with myopia is different from that of a healthy person due to the fact that the light falling on the eye after its refraction by the lens is projected not on the retina, but in front of it. Due to the fact that the focal point is in front of the retina, the eye is not able to see objects that are far away. The image is blurry. However, close objects while it is visible to him well. Although if myopia progresses, then near vision begins to break. It is this type that leads to serious complications and often becomes the reason that a person receives a disability. But myopia may not be progressive, this leads to the fact that vision is impaired only when peering into the distance. Then the treatment is not required to a person, and the correction gives good results.

Treatment of myopia

There are several ways to help correct and restore vision in myopia:

Drug treatment. It is conducted by courses and recommended for every patient with myopia. It is necessary to take calcium preparations, tissue therapy, for example, the introduction of aloe intramuscularly, the use of vitamins of group B. Preparations are used to improve cerebral circulation. This means such as Piracetam, Pentoxifylline. Physical therapy courses help stop the progression of the disease.

Correction of myopia with glasses and lenses. The strength of the lenses is selected in each case individually, glasses are made to order. What to choose - contact lenses or glasses, depends on the preferences of the patient.

Hardware treatment. For its passage, such devices are used as: akkomodotrener, a laser, with the stimulation of the organ of vision, etc. The color-impulse treatment is also used.

Surgical treatment is clearly shown with the progression of the disease. His goal is to stop the development of the pathological process and save the person’s sight. If myopia has reached a high degree, the patient’s lens is replaced with an artificial lens.

Laser correction of myopia. However, this procedure has contraindications, in particular: age limits (up to 18 years), disease progression, cataracts, glaucoma, absence of a second eye, any inflammatory diseases of the organs of vision, etc. Myopia is corrected by changing the shape of the cornea, there are several ways to achieve the goal, however The essence does not change.

Keratoplasty is another modern method that changes the shape of the cornea to treat myopia. At the same time, a transplant is transplanted into the eye, which is located either in the cornea or under it.

Prevention of myopia

It has been established that lately myopia more and more often occurs in childhood. Therefore, it is important to begin the prevention of this disease from an early age.

There are several ways to prevent it:

Compliance with the distance to the reading object is 40 cm. This will allow less strain on the eyes, reduce the force applied to focus the ciliary muscle.

Observance of breaks in visual work. You should not strain your eyes for more than 40 minutes, and the break should not be less than 10 minutes.

Proper lighting is another measure to prevent myopia. Optimal for working lighting is considered natural sunlight. If it is not enough, then you should definitely use artificial lamps. However, the light should not dazzle.

It is important to monitor the correct fit while working at a computer or study. The back should not be arched, the head should be placed directly, under the ban reading in bed and in a moving vehicle.

Equally important is regular exercise for the eyes and nutrition.

Regular examinations by an ophthalmologist should become a habit, especially if a person has a risk of developing myopia. Clinical examination in the clinic at the place of residence is a great way to prevent many diseases, including myopia.

It is important to protect eyes from exposure to ultraviolet light. It can harm the organs of vision no less than insufficient lighting. In bright light, the pupil narrows and is in constant tension, which can lead to the development of myopia. Therefore, it is important to use wide-brimmed sunglasses and hats.

Vision correction in detecting mild myopia. Do not refuse to wear glasses or lenses, even if a person does not feel the symptoms of the disease.

Preventive and therapeutic measures started at an early age will help preserve vision and prevent the development of myopia.

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