Lipoma - what is it and how to treat?

Lipoma is a capsule filled with adipose tissue. This formation under the skin looks like a domed lump under the skin, soft to the touch (dense in the presence of connective tissue). When pressed, the lipoma is mobile - it easily moves to the side. The growth of the capsule occurs outward, therefore it is detected when examining areas of the body.

Lipoma sometimes reaches a large size. In these cases, the tumor sags, the base extends into a thin leg from the skin (lipoma pendulum), which creates conditions for blood stagnation, edema, necrosis and ulceration. These tumors do not independently decrease in size and do not disappear.

Although lipomas are benign neoplasms, but sometimes, for example, as a result of trauma, they are reborn into a malignant tumor. Therefore, most dermatologists recommend that patients remove lipomas, even in cases where the tumor does not cause any discomfort.

Breast Lipoma

If you have a breast lipoma, follow the recommendations of your doctor and monitor the process:

  • Breast ultrasound - once in 3 months,
  • examination of the nipple discharge - once every 6 months,
  • mammography - once every 6 months,
  • thermommography - once in 6 months,
  • tests for tumor markers - as directed by the doctor.

If the tumor grows or remains at the same level for a long time - remove the formation. The operation is simple, complications rarely occur.

Lipoma on the head

If a benign tumor is not external, but is located in the structures of the brain, then the corresponding symptomatology is determined. So, when the hemispheric lipid lipoma is formed, in humans it occurs:

  • loss of field of view,
  • intense headaches
  • excessive secretion of pituitary hormones,
  • hallucinations,
  • mental disorders
  • disorders of cerebral circulation.

Lipoma on the back

Lipomas on the back mainly appear in the upper part. This is due to the fact that here the fatty tissue is thicker than at the bottom. By the way, most often lipomas (adipose) appear precisely in this anatomical region of the body. As a rule, lipoma does not manifest itself as severe symptoms.

For many people, small seals on the back are found by chance, for example, during a massage. When the lipoma reaches a large size, it can put pressure on the end of the nerve roots and nearby organs, which causes discomfort.

Lipoma removal

Indications for lipoma removal:

  • rapid increase in neoplasm in size,
  • localization causing a cosmetic defect (on the face and other exposed areas of the body),
  • lipoma compression of adjacent tissues,
  • soreness of compaction.

Lipoma removal is performed using the following methods:

  • puncture-aspiration method,
  • surgical method
  • laser removal.

Puncture aspiration method

The puncture-aspiration method involves the injection of a special solution into the wender, which ensures the resorption of the pathological accumulation of adipose tissue. The undoubted advantage of the method is that there are no traces left on the skin after the procedure.

The disadvantage can be considered the possibility of its use only for the treatment of small wen of small size (no more than 1-2 cm). In addition, the therapeutic effect develops after 2 months or more. In approximately 20% of cases, such conservative therapy does not give positive results.

Surgical method

Removal of a lipoma, the size of which exceeds 2-3 cm, is carried out surgically. Surgery is performed under general anesthesia (anesthesia). After a radical solution to the problem, scars remain on the skin that may require plastics.

Endoscopic lipoma removal technique is now widely used. In the postoperative period, the patient is left in the hospital for 1-2 days, and the observation is carried out within 2 weeks after discharge.

Garlic and lard

Take 100 grams of bacon and 50 grams of garlic, crushed in a meat grinder, spread in a saucepan and stew on low heat for at least 10 minutes. The resulting mass is applied to the affected area, put a cabbage leaf on top and wrap a woolen scarf. The procedure is done at night.

The aloe leaf is cut in a thick place and applied to the diseased area, fixed with a gauze bandage or medical plaster. This compress is left for twelve hours or overnight. The minimum number of procedures performed is two weeks without interruption.

Causes of lipoma

The cause of metabolic disturbances is a decrease in the motor function of the stomach and intestines, which do not have time to remove decomposition products from the body, as well as the following factors:

  • endocrine diseases
  • overweight,
  • eating preservatives and food additives
  • smoking and drinking,
  • lack of minerals and vitamins in food.

Lipoma Diagnosis

Tumor growth occurs slowly, often in areas with thin layers of adipose tissue:

  • back,
  • shoulders
  • outer thighs.

Lipomas in the structure of the mammary glands, as a rule, are larger in size and give an unpleasant cosmetic effect. No imaging studies are required for most subcutaneous lipomas.

Internal lipomas in the region of the gastrointestinal tract are determined on contrast radiographic images. From other visual methods of research of lipomas, which are located in non-standard places, where the differential diagnosis for malignant course is shown, use:

  • ultrasonography,
  • computed tomography (CT),
  • magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

MRI is recommended as a reliable preoperative method for studying the structure of the lipoma and the location area. Often the method is used for suspected intramuscular lipomas, pediatric lipoblastomas, and others.

Of the other diagnostic procedures, a biopsy is often used to differential diagnosis of internal lipomas. For subcutaneous formations, this method is used extremely rarely, since this type of tumor is distinguishable by clinical examinations.

Histological methods for the study of materials obtained by fine-needle aspiration biopsy from internal tumors differentiate the types of lipomas.

Lipoma classification

angiolipoma: with a pronounced vascular component, which is characterized by sensitivity to palpation and tenderness,
fibrolipoma: with proliferation of connective tissue,
myelolipoma: a tumor consisting of adipose and hematopoietic tissues - occurs in the retroperitoneal space, adrenal glands, pelvic tissues,
myolipoma: with muscle fiber content,
adenolipoma: with components of the sweat gland structure,
perineurovascular lipoma: affects the median nerve,
pleomorphic lipoma: typical for older people, places of localization: neck, shoulders, back.

Lipoma complications

Complications of lipomas are extremely rare:

inflammation: the lipoma reddens, increases and hurts, with pressure in the tumor, the presence of fluid is felt,
liposarcoma: malignant lipoma,
displacement of surrounding tissues around the lipoma.

Removing the lipoma is only half the battle; in the postoperative period, careful monitoring of the condition of the part of the body in which the operation was performed is required to eliminate complications.

Lipoma prevention

Lipoma prevention measures:

  • follow a diet
  • do exercises,
  • physical Culture,
  • proper nutrition.

It is required to exclude from the diet products, because of which there is a deposition of fat in the body and the development of neoplasms. This primarily concerns preservatives and fast food products.

Questions and answers on "Lipoma"

Question:I have bumps all over my body. As if on all my muscles. Rib. Even on the spinal cord. They do not interfere, but when pressed, it hurts. Most are on the legs. Like a battery. I heard that if touched, then everything can come out.

Answer: You need a full-time dermatologist consultation.

Question:I have a lipoma on the upper part of the labia, the gynecologist prescribed treatment with levomecol, the result is zero. What to do?

Answer: Although lipomas are benign neoplasms, but sometimes, for example, as a result of trauma, they are reborn into a malignant tumor. Therefore, most dermatologists recommend that patients remove lipomas, even in cases where the tumor does not cause any discomfort. Subcutaneous lipomas are removed under local anesthesia along with the capsule, deeper - under general anesthesia. It is very important that the removal of the lipoma is caused by a surgeon in a medical institution, since if the lipoma is not removed completely, the disease will recur. Lipoma removal is carried out using the following methods: puncture-aspiration method, surgical method, removal with a laser.

Question:Answer please. -I have today removed fibril-size 2 deep by 1.5 cm in the muscles of the lumbar region by 1.5 cm. The surgeon did outpatient, one with the nurse. before this, she did an ultrasound, he said, that the lipoma grew by 1.5 cm in 3 years. It is possible to remove the type on an outpatient basis — it is in a capsule and does not supply blood to neighboring tissues. But when I incised, I began to go deeper, it turned out to be very deep. for almost an hour he cut it and pulled it in pieces. I have a question, whether there will be a recurrence after such shredding in pieces — it was not cut out by a single capsule formation. And yet, such a surgery should be done by 2 surgeons? - one is pushing the muscle, and the other is cutting out .. is he right - what did one do? I was tormented by pains in the lumbar region, hernias did not increase in the lumbar spine .. but the pains became vomiting aching intolerable. I connected it with a lipoma

Answer: If the lipoma increases, it must be removed. Relapses are rare, if the lipoma has not been completely removed. The laser method reduces the risk of relapse to zero. The lipoma itself doesn’t cause any pain, perhaps it was pressing on the neighboring organs that you should examine.

Question:Could there be a large bruise lipoma on the thigh?

Answer: Lipoma is in the form of swelling, but can cause bruising.

Question:Uzi showed a lipoma in the neck. There is no capsule in the lipoma. What to do? How to delete. Hinders live.

Answer: Hello. Diffuse lipoma (lipoma diffusum) is a benign tumor in the fatty tissue that does not have a connective tissue capsule. The only rational way is to remove them with surgery.

Question:The doctor diagnosed the lipoma on the third finger of his left hand was removed after two months; the procedure was again deleted; three weeks passed and again increases, what to do?

Answer: Hello. Read the previous answer.

Question:Good day. A year ago, an adult daughter had a lipoma deep in the muscles removed on her back. This year I went to the surgeon, the lipoma grew again. The operation was painful. And now the daughter is crying in anticipation of the new operation. What should we do?

Answer: Hello. With the laser method of lipoma removal, the probability of relapse is reduced to zero.

Question:Hello. 7 years ago, I discovered three seals under the skin. One under the skin along the white line of the abdomen, the other two on the right side. Having examined, the doctor said that it was lipoma. The edges are even. Uniform with a capsule. Dimensions 0.8 mm. After that, I visited an oncologist who used palpation, who said that this was a nephrofibroma. The surgeon cut them out on an outpatient basis and looked and said that these were lipomas. I brought the answer to the biopsy after 10 days. Are there liposarcomas of this size?

Answer: Hello Yes, they do. Wait for the histology results.

Question:Hello. After removing the lipoma (at the junction of the chest and armpit), I formed a seroma. The volume of punctured fluid is about once every 2-3 days, 20-30 ml, there are no dynamics to decrease so far. Apply pressure dressings that are uncomfortable. The seam dragged on for a long time. Please tell me, is there any physiotherapy to speed up the healing process? Or maybe some other ways to deal with seroma?

Answer: Hello The situation described by you indicates the need for a complete revision of the seroma, since fragments of the lipoma are most likely left in its cavity.

Question:Hello. I have a left lipoma subcutaneously along the costal arch - in the subcutaneous fatty tissue, areas without clear contours, single and merging into layers, the structure is high-genic, but with small anogenic rounded inclusions 0.3-0.4. With a clear outline - lipomatosis, there are signs of inflammation. Please tell me what to do?

Answer: Hello. If bothers or increases you need to operate.

Folk remedies

Folk remedies have some effectiveness only with small sizes of wen. For this, means are used that can improve microcirculation in the field of education. For this purpose, you can use garlic, which has pronounced irritating properties. For the preparation of tools will need 1 clove of garlic, which should be thoroughly grind into a homogeneous mass, similar in its consistency to mush. Then in the resulting mass you need to add a few drops of oil. The most suitable for this is sunflower or linseed oil. The resulting herbal remedy is recommended to rub into the area wen 1 time per day. The local effect of garlic on the skin causes an increase in blood flow to the tissues.

It is also known that compresses with Kalissia fragrant (popularly called "golden mustache") are able to cope with wenders with a diameter of up to 3 mm. To do this, a fresh leaf of the plant is superimposed on the problem area where the wen is located, covered with cling film and mated. It is recommended to leave the compress overnight so that the exposure time is 10 - 12 hours.

Some use a compress based on onions and laundry soap. To make it, you will need to chop the onion, grate a soap with a large grater. Then the prepared components are mixed and sent to a water bath for connection into a single mass. After cooling, the resulting mixture is superimposed on the wen area under a bandage. Such compresses can be done up to 3 times per day. Compress time is 1 hour. It is recommended to apply compresses daily until the lipoma is completely absorbed.

For the same purpose, a mask is used, which includes edible salt, honey and sour cream. The listed components are mixed in equal proportions until a homogeneous mass is achieved. After that, the resulting mask is applied to the wen, and then 20 to 30 minutes later it is washed off with warm water. This procedure is recommended to perform daily until the wen is removed.

The use of any of these tools should be preceded by an appeal to a specialist. That doctor will help to understand the effectiveness of traditional medicine, to identify contraindications and help in choosing the best means. It is also important to emphasize once again that the use of such funds is possible only with a small size of the wen. If there is no effect for a long time, it is recommended to consult a doctor for prescribing medical treatment or surgery.

Types of limes

In scientific research, medicine, there are several generally accepted classifications of species of lipomas. One of the options for division is the histological structure of the wen. On this basis, emit:

  1. Diffuse. These fat formations do not have a shell. Cells expand between body tissues. Such lipomas, as a rule, are accompanied by systemic pathologies of adipose tissues.
  2. Knotted. The most common type, which is a nodule of different sized lobules, is enclosed in a capsule. Fat cells form these divisions.

There is another system of division of lipomas, the classification is as follows:

  1. Fibrolipoma. Overgrown fat and connective tissue.
  2. Classic. Education only from adipose tissue.
  3. Myolipoma. Muscle, adipose tissue.
  4. Angiolipoma. This type of lipoma captures a large area along with blood vessels.
  5. Mixolipoma. Mucous, fatty tissues.
  6. Myelolipoma. Bone marrow elements and adipose tissue.
  7. Gibernoma. This is brown fat, which accumulates in animals that hibernate, and in a child (infants). Need for processing into energy during hibernation.

All the above types of adipose tissue have the same manifestation, so this separation is more necessary in scientific papers. Doctors use a slightly different classification, which is based not on the composition of the neoplasm, but on the site of its localization, characteristics that divide them into:

  • retroperitoneal - located in the abdomen,
  • subcutaneous - located in the subcutaneous fat,
  • breast cancer - localization in the breast in women,
  • internal organs - appears on the surface of organs that are surrounded by fat,
  • perineural - occurs on the nerve trunks, causes sharp pain symptoms due to the peculiarities of the location,
  • intermuscular - located in muscle fibers, often due to defective removal of the wen,
  • lumbosacral - located on the spinal tubule,
  • synovial articular membrane and tendons - appears in the tendon sheets or joint cavity,
  • adenolipoma - formed next to the sweat glands,
  • angiolipomu - appears in the kidney,
  • mediastinal - located in the middle part of the chest cavity,
  • cardiophrenic - located in the cardiophrenic corner.

Lipoma - causes

It was written above what a wen is, but what provokes his education? The causes of the appearance of lipomas are not fully understood, therefore, the mechanism is unknown. At the moment, doctors are able to explain only some aspects that accompany the appearance of neoplasms, but not the exact reasons. According to experts, there are several factors due to which wen appear on the body:

  1. Atypical metabolic processes (impaired enzyme activity).
  2. Damage to body areas with adipose tissue.

For lipomas that occur throughout the body, there is a hereditary predisposition. More than half of patients with multiple lesions had a similar problem in older generations. Another likely cause is neurotrophic disorders. If some substances are missing in a limited fiber area, fat accumulates and turns into a wen. Also stimulate the growth of lipomas are:

  • hypothyroidism
  • diseases of the liver, pancreas,
  • bad habits,
  • decreased pituitary function,
  • neoplasms of the respiratory system.

Lipoma - symptoms

A person may not even notice the growth of a wen for a long time, because it will not hurt or cause inflammation. Symptoms of lipoma for the most part come down to external manifestations, so you should know what a wen looks like. The photo below shows an example of such a neoplasm. It is soft, elastic, mobile, but completely painless, usually located under the skin. For this reason, and is called subcutaneous wen.

The lipoma is easily palpated, during the touch no pain should be. The exceptions are multiple lipomas located along the nerve trunks. The pain will occur due to pressure on the nerves when clicking on the wen. Externally, the formation may look different, this symptom depends on the composition of the tumor. It can be quite soft (lipofibroma), more dense if it is a fibrous lipoma. A characteristic symptom is the preservation of the size of the tumor with a decrease in weight (sometimes even increases).

Lipoma - treatment

Wen is considered a benign neoplasm, but it still needs to be treated. If you leave the tumor, it will continue to grow, which will lead to neurosis in a person due to a deterioration in appearance, and in some cases, the adipose can begin to put pressure on the internal organs in the body and disrupt their work. In the advanced form, lipomas contribute to the deformation of the mammary and sebaceous glands, which leads to impaired functionality. There have been cases when the adipose is able to become inflamed, develop into a malignant formation.

Lipoma treatment methods are divided into radical and folk. The latter are used only with the agreement of the attending physician. It is not worth delaying with the removal of the neoplasm, because conducting an operation at an early stage of development will reduce the likelihood of scars on the skin, scars. If you do not cut a wen, it can cause the formation of extensive hematomas, necrosis.

Surgical removal of lipoma

The only effective, safe and radical way to treat this type of neoplasm is to remove the lipoma surgically. The procedure is as follows:

  1. Removal is performed by exfoliation. To do this, make a small incision on the skin.
  2. The contents of education squeeze.
  3. The capsule is then scraped out to avoid re-formation.
  4. Next, the incision is sutured.

Local anesthesia is performed, large lipomas are excised permanently, and small ones are performed on an outpatient basis. After 7-10 days, complete healing occurs after the procedure, then the sutures should be removed. In modern medicine, a laser is used to remove wen. Their use provides a good cosmetic effect, quick healing, gentle intervention in the human body and the absence of relapse. This type of operation is performed on an outpatient basis.

Lipoma treatment with folk remedies

Doctors are allowed alternative treatment of lipoma, but only with the approval of therapy. The effectiveness of the funds is questioned, however, they cannot harm either. Before starting taking folk remedies, a specialist must confirm that this is really a lipoma. There are other diseases that are similar in appearance to a wen. You can use these recipes:

  1. Ivy. It is necessary to grind the stems, plant leaves in an amount to fill half a glass. Pour the vodka to fill the tank completely. Pour the contents into a bottle of dark glass, put it in the refrigerator for 3 days. Strain the tincture, put the grass on a bandage and attach to the lipoma. Leave a compress should be all night. Apply this recipe until the tumor disappears completely.
  2. Honey. It is also used to treat a wen. Mix 1 tbsp. l vodka and 2 tbsp. l honey Place the resulting mixture on a bandage and attach to the neoplasm. Change the dressing 3 times a day, apply until the wen completely disappears.
  3. Golden mustache - is considered the most effective folk remedy for getting rid of a wen. The leaves are crushed, then spread on a gauze and fastened to the tumor. Next, wrap cling film and towel. As a rule, a wen can be cured in 2 weeks.

Causes of the appearance of wen (lipomas)

Significant causes of the appearance of lipomas are not fully understood; the most likely factors for their formation are:

  • Hormonal disorders in the body.
  • Diseases of the thyroid gland, liver.
  • Violation of metabolic processes in adipose tissue.
  • Diabetes.
  • Alcoholism.
  • Non-compliance with personal hygiene.
  • Soft tissue injuries.
  • Poor quality food.
  • Genetic predisposition.

Signs of lipomas

A newly appeared small lipoma is often detected by accident, since the neoplasm is painless and does not manifest itself for a long time. Patients experience unpleasant sensations only when they touch the lipomas located along the nerve trunks.

Adipose tissue may be 1–20 cm in diameter, sometimes larger. When palpating, these are subcutaneous formations of medium density, surrounded by a connective tissue capsule, mobile, not fused with neighboring tissues. The skin over the wen can be easily displaced in all directions.

More often, a lipoma is diagnosed in women aged 30 to 50 years. Fat can appear everywhere where there is adipose tissue: on the face, scalp, back, legs or arms, mammary glands, intramuscular fascia. Rarely, lipomas affect the gastrointestinal tract, liver, and tendon sheaths of the joints.

Wen never appear on the feet and hands.

Over time, lipomas increase in size, with compression of nearby organs can cause discomfort. Also, a feature of lipomas is that with a decrease in the patient’s body weight, lipomas do not decrease, but, on the contrary, sometimes increase.

Hereditary predisposition is the cause of multiple lipomatosis - increased fat deposition in the intermuscular spaces and subcutaneous tissue. At the same time, the fat-loss workers are localized throughout the body, almost without touching the head, shoulders and legs below the knees, their number can reach fifty.

According to the structure and localization, these types of lipomas are distinguished:

  • Lipofibromas are soft to the touch formations, consist only of adipose tissue.
  • Fibrolipomas - a little denser to the touch, composed of adipose and connective tissue. This type of lipoma appears on the hips, calves.
  • Myolipomas are dense formations with smooth muscle fibers.
  • Angiolipomas - consist of muscle, fatty tissue and thick-walled blood vessels. This type of lipoma affects the internal organs: liver, kidneys.
  • Myelolipomas - formed by adipose and hematopoietic tissues. Rarely found in practice, adrenal glands are more often affected.

What are dangerous lipomas?

Small fat workers are not dangerous. When they are found, you need to contact an oncologist just in case to clarify the diagnosis. If the lipoma does not interfere, it can not be removed. Most often, women seek to get rid of wen because of cosmetic defects caused by neoplasms.

But there are cases when getting rid of limes is necessary:

  • Rapid growth of the wen, pain when pressing on it.
  • Constraint of movements with periarticular localization.
  • Lipoma compression of blood vessels or nerves.

These conditions can cause pathological changes in the tissues located next to the lipoma, so the help of a doctor is needed here.

It is extremely rare that wen can degenerate into a malignant tumor - liposarcoma. This occurs with a long course of the disease, when the lipoma reaches a large size or is often injured.

Treatment of adipose tissue (lipomas)

It’s pointless and sometimes dangerous to treat lipomas on your own using folk methods, and even more so trying to squeeze them out: some aggressive drugs that are part of traditional medicine recipes (iodine, garlic) can provoke inflammation. Zhiroviki are removed only surgically - this is an effective and safe method of getting rid of neoplasms. There is no cure for their treatment.

Care must be taken to lipomas found in children. Until the age of five, doctors do not recommend removing wen at older age in case of discomfort, overgrowth, cosmetic defects, and lipomas are removed.

To remove small wen (with a diameter of up to 3 cm), a special drug is used that promotes their resorption.

Adipose veins with a diameter of up to 7 cm are removed in outpatient settings, larger tumors require surgical intervention in a surgical hospital.

There are three methods for surgical removal of lipomas:

  • Surgical excision - the lipoma is removed with the capsule through a wide skin incision. The advantage of the method is the complete removal of the wen and the absence of re-growth. The disadvantage is that after the operation, noticeable scars remain.
  • Endoscopic removal - no more than 1 cm incision is made on the skin, through it the lipoma is destroyed and removed. Control over the operation is carried out using a miniendoscope. This method gives a good cosmetic effect, but does not exclude the possibility of relapse.
  • Liposuction of the adipose - through the incision about 5 mm in size, a lipoaspirator tube is inserted, with the help of which the adipose tissue of the lipoma is sucked. Using this method, the best cosmetic effect is achieved, but due to the lack of control over the completeness of the removal of the wen, the likelihood of its repeated growth is high.

After the operation, the removed tumor must be sent for histological analysis to exclude oncological degeneration of cells. Postoperative sutures are treated with 70% ethanol and covered with a protective dressing. When large lipomas are removed, serous fluid accumulates in the cavities formed on the site of the adipose: in order to drain it, drainage tubes are placed.

Sometimes patients may experience a fever. In case of violation of the rules for the treatment of sutures, a bacterial infection can join. In this case, the doctor will prescribe antipyretic drugs and antibiotics.

To accelerate the resorption of postoperative scars, it is recommended to use Contractubex gel, or other means to remove scars.

Watch the video: Treatment of Lipomas and Soft Tissue Masses (January 2020).