Hepatosis of the liver: treatment and symptoms

There are fatty and pigmented hepatosis, with acute and chronic (more often) course. The most common hepatosis is chronic steatohepatosis (synonyms: fatty hepatosis, fatty infiltration of the liver, fatty degeneration of the liver).

Etiopathogenesis

There are exogenous and hereditary factors for the development of hepatosis. Exogenous include toxic effects (acute and chronic), pathology of other organs and systems, and nutritional (nutritional) factors - thyroid disease, diabetes mellitus, obesity, Cushing syndrome, protein deficiency, vitamin deficiency and others. acids in the liver.

What is fatty hepatosis?

The disease is caused by a person's lifestyle, the influence of environmental conditions. What is hepatosis? This is a chronic disease, fatty degeneration of the liver, in which there are diffuse changes in the cells of the organ. There is an increase in the parenchyma - tissue, consisting of hepatocytes, responsible for the normal functioning of the organ. Doctors in the diagnosis and treatment use several names of this disease:

  • fatty liver,
  • hepato-steatosis,
  • liver steatosis.

The liver in the body performs about five hundred functions. With a violation of metabolic processes begin dystrophic changes. In the cells, the structure deteriorates, they are filled with fat. There is a gradual development of fatty hepatosis:

  • the appearance of deposits in individual cells,
  • development of diffuse clusters
  • accumulation of fat by hepatocytes,
  • violation of oxygen supply,
  • slower blood circulation
  • cell death.

Fatty degeneration of the liver is code K76.0. according to ICD-10 - the international classification of diseases. If you do not begin treatment, the process of replacing cells with connective tissue occurs, which disrupts the functioning of the liver and affects the entire body. Serious consequences may occur: develop cirrhosis, hepatitis. There will be diffuse changes in the pancreas. There is a possibility of degeneration of cells into atypical ones - the development of malignant tumors.

Hypodynamia, the use of fast food can provoke the appearance of hepatosis. Harmful diets followed by overeating, fasting. Among the causes of fatty hepatosis:

  • overweight,
  • diabetes,
  • alcohol consumption,
  • pregnancy,
  • gastrointestinal problems
  • hepatitis viruses,
  • toxic poisoning
  • antibiotics,
  • eating fatty foods
  • vegetarianism,
  • drug drugs with toxic effects.

Causes of hepatosis liver

Acute hepatosis occurs with toxic organ damage. It can be poisoning with fluorine, arsenic, characteristic symptoms of acute hepatosis also appear after taking high doses of alcohol, with an overdose of drugs, the use of poisonous mushrooms. Sometimes acute liver dystrophy becomes a complication of viral hepatitis or sepsis.

Hepatosis in chronic form in most cases is a result of long-term intake of alcoholic beverages, the cause of hepatosis of the liver may also be a deficiency of protein or vitamins, the action of bacterial toxins, carbon tetrachloride, organophosphorus compounds and a number of other agents with hepatotropic effects.

Violation of metabolic processes in the body entails a metabolic disorder in the liver. In this case, the pathogenesis of the disease is a violation of lipid metabolism and affects the formation of lipoproteins in the liver cells.

A number of exogenous substances, among which are medicines (aminazine, testosterone preparations, progestogens), with prolonged uncontrolled use can cause cholestatic hepatosis.

With damage to the liver in this case, there is a violation of the exchange of cholesterol and bile acids in the liver cells, the process of formation of bile, its outflow through the ducts is also disturbed. With the progression of the symptoms of the disease, not only the effect of a harmful factor on hepatocytes, but also a toxic-allergic factor is of great importance.

Symptoms of hepatosis of the liver

Symptoms of hepatosis in the liver in an acute form develop rapidly. Pathology is manifested in the form of dyspepsia and is accompanied by signs of severe intoxication, jaundice. At the initial stage of the disease, the liver slightly increases in size, when probing it is soft, with time the percussion size of the organ becomes smaller, and palpation becomes impossible.

When conducting laboratory studies of blood tests, there is a high concentration of aminotransferases, in particular alanine aminotransferase, fructose-1-phosphataldolase, urokininase. With severe disease there is a low level of potassium in the blood, increased ESR. Changes in liver function tests are not always and are not natural.

Chronic fatty hepatosis is accompanied by dyspeptic disorders, loss of strength, dull pain in the right hypochondrium. The liver is slightly enlarged, its surface is smooth, while palpating the patient notes pain, unlike cirrhosis, the liver does not have a dense consistency and a sharp edge.

Frequent satellite hepatitis and cirrhosis - splenomegaly - for fatty hepatosis is not typical. The concentration of aminotransferases in the blood in this disease is slightly above the norm, and cholesterol and B-lipoproteins can often be high. They have their own specifics and results of bromsulfalein and woevferdinovoy samples. Often there is a delay in removal of these drugs by the liver. When making a diagnosis, a crucial role is played by liver biopsy.

Cholestatic hepatosis of the liver can occur in acute or in chronic form. The main symptoms of hepatosis in the liver in this case are cholestasis syndrome. It is characterized by jaundice, itching, staining of urine in a dark color, discoloration of feces, increased body temperature. In laboratory studies, bilirubinemia, high alkaline phosphatase and leucine aminopeptidase activity in the blood, high cholesterol levels and high ESR values ​​are noted.

Acute fatty hepatosis occurs with symptoms of liver failure in severe form and may cause the patient to die from hepatic coma or secondary hemorrhagic events. With a more favorable outcome, the pathology becomes chronic, if the etiological factor that caused the disease continues to affect the human body.

The course of chronic fatty hepatosis is more favorable. Very often, recovery occurs, especially if the effects are eliminated from the damaging agent and timely treatment. Under adverse circumstances, fatty hepatosis of the liver can turn into chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis of the liver. Cholestatic hepatosis is relatively quickly transformed into hepatitis due to the appearance of the reticulohistiocytic stroma of the liver and the development of secondary cholangitis.

Hepatosis treatment of the liver

Patients with symptoms of acute toxic hepatosis of the liver are urgently hospitalized. When a patient is poisoned, it is necessary as soon as possible to take a set of measures aimed at stopping the entry of toxins into the body and accelerating their elimination. These procedures can be carried out by the victim on their own, as part of first-aid first aid or in a hospital.

Also, the purpose of emergency measures to help the patient becomes in this case the fight against hemorrhagic syndrome, general intoxication, low levels of potassium in the blood. In severe disease, corticosteroids should be prescribed, treatment of liver failure.

In chronic hepatosis of the liver is also important to prevent the harmful effects of the etiological factor, the use of alcohol is strictly prohibited. The patient is prescribed a diet with a high content of animal protein and low fat, especially of animal origin.

Lipotropic factors such as choline chloride, lipoic acid, folic acid are recommended. In addition, vitamin B12 is prescribed and a preparation with an extract of liver hydrolyzate - "Sirepar". Treatment of hepatosis in the liver in a chronic form requires the appointment of corticosteroids.

Patients suffering from chronic hepatosis, need dispensary observation, they are not recommended treatment in a sanatorium and resorts.

Measures of prevention of the disease include the timely treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, a balanced diet.

Expert Editor: Pavel Alexandrovich Mochalov | D.M.N. general practitioner

Education: Moscow Medical Institute. I. M. Sechenov, specialty - “Medicine” in 1991, in 1993 “Occupational diseases”, in 1996 “Therapy”.

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Fatty hepatosis is one of the most common forms of liver damage.

This is the initial phase of one of the most common diseases of our time - fatty liver disease. It is divided into alcoholic (ALCD) and non-alcoholic (NAFLD), depending on the reasons causing it.

According to some clinical statistics, the spread of fatty hepatosis is quite significant. Hepatosis is distinguished by the fact that fat deposited in the liver cells does not cause inflammatory response, as indicated by the normal level of transaminases. Raising them marks the beginning of the next phase of fatty liver disease - steatohepatitis.

Nosology refers to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) to independent units. NASH is characterized by an increase in enzyme activity in the liver, as well as morphological changes in liver biopsy specimens.

Morphological changes resemble a picture of alcoholic hepatitis: there is an inflammatory reaction and fatty degeneration, but patients do not consume alcohol in such quantities as cause liver damage. Therefore, the prefix "non-alcoholic" in the name of the disease emphasizes its isolation from the alcoholic lesion of the liver.

Among the main reasons for the development of steatohepatitis, it is generally accepted that the increase in the content of free fatty acids in the liver is considered.

The incidence of NASH in liver biopsy was 1.2% in Japan and 7–9% in Western Europe. Diagnosis of alcoholic hepatitis occurs 10-15 times more often. In the USA, NASH is diagnosed annually in 10% of the total number of patients who have chronic hepatitis. About 30–40% of cases of viral cirrhosis are also associated with NASH.

Multifactorial etiology is characteristic of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and fatty hepatosis. It is customary to isolate primary and secondary disease.

Among the causes of the primary disease NASH and fatty hepatosis emit:

type 2 diabetes

The presence of type 2 diabetes with overweight, increased insulin in the blood (hyperinsulinemia), as well as a violation of fat metabolism (hyperlipidemia) are often the cause of fatty hepatosis. An increase in triglycerides and cholesterol (both individually and in combination) is characteristic of hyperlipidemia.

A secondary disease of NASH and fatty hepatosis can cause:

chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, which are accompanied by impaired absorption (especially ulcerative colitis and chronic pancreatitis),

prolonged parenteral nutrition (more than 2 weeks), in which the fat and carbon content is not sufficiently balanced,

medication with hepatotoxic potential (synthetic estrogens, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, amiodarone, tetracycline, glucocorticosteroids, methotrexate, tamoxifen, perhexyline maleate),

malabsorption syndrome (impaired absorption) that develops when an intestinal anastomosis is applied,

extended resection of the small intestine, biliary-pancreatic stoma, gastroplasty for obesity,

syndrome of excessive bacterial contamination in the intestine (usually against the background of diverticulosis of the small intestine),

Konovalov - Wilson's disease,

Weber - Christian disease.

Symptoms of fatty hepatosis

In women, the disease is much more common than in men.

Among various clinical symptoms, there are pains in the right hypochondrium, dyspeptic disorders (nausea, vomiting, a feeling of heaviness in the epigastrium, unstable chair), asthenovegetative disorders (weakness, fatigue, headache), there is a slight increase in the size of the liver;

In the case of fatty hepatosis, functional tests of the liver are normal; in NASH, there is an increased activity of the enzymes cholestasis and cytolysis and the level of triglycerides in the blood.

For most patients, an increased body mass index (obesity) is characteristic.

In patients with fatty hepatosis, AlaT activity does not exceed the norm, with NASH, there is an excess of ALT / AST by 1.5-2.5 times, as well as an increase in g – GTP and AsAT.

Currently, the pathogenesis of fatty hepatosis and NASH has not yet been sufficiently studied. It is believed that fatty hepatosis is a precursor of NASH. The accumulation of lipids (triglycerides) in the development of fatty hepatosis may be due to:

violations in the liver mitochondria, which lead to a) an increase in the synthesis of fatty acids, and b) a decrease in the rate of b-oxidation of free fatty acids (FFA),

increase in the amount of free fatty acids entering the liver.

The next stage in the development of the disease is the formation of steatohepatitis. This stage is accompanied by changes in the liver, which are inflammatory-necrotic in nature. Regardless of the etiology of steatosis, these mechanisms are based on universal mechanisms.

Free fatty acids are a highly active substrate of lipid peroxidation (LPO). The effects of lipid peroxidation due to the main part of the histological changes that are observed with steatohepatitis, therefore, FLOOR is considered to be the universal pathogenetic mechanism of NASH.

Necrosis of cells and the formation of giant mitochondria is caused by POL, accompanied by damage to the membranes. POL products - aldehydes (malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal) - can activate stellate cells in the liver, which are the main producers of collagen.

Aldehydes also stimulate neutrophil chemotaxis and cause cytokeratin cross-linking and the formation of Mallory bodies.

Some authors believe that it is not enough to have only oxidized fat in the liver to start the FLOOR cascade. In many cases, liver steatosis does not progress to inflammation of a necrotic-inflammatory nature and fibrosis.

Therefore, it is noteworthy that the assumption that steatosis alone, as a “first shock” in the development of steatohepatitis, is not enough. The role of the “second push” can be played by other factors, such as medication.

In the course of experimental studies, it was found that the “second push” causes the appearance of free radicals that cause the oxidative process. First of all, these preparations include cationic amplicil amines (4,4 – diethylaminoethoxyhexestrol (DEAEG coronarolytic agent), amiodarone and perhexylin).

The use of such drugs is usually accompanied by the occurrence and development of steatohepatitis. The accumulation in the mitochondria of amiodarone and perhexylin leads to the suppression of fatty acid oxidation, and, thus, it becomes the “first impetus” to the development of liver steatosis.

In addition, these drugs cause impaired electron transfer in the respiratory chain. This, in turn, can contribute to the development of superoxide anions, which cause the reaction of the FLOOR, that is, there is a "second push" that triggers the development of steatohepatitis and liver damage.

Some authors M. Carneiro de Mura, 2001, rank among the sources of oxidative stress that cause the development of steatohepatitis, increased production of cytochrome P450 2E1, cytokines and endotoxins.

In animal models and in patients with NASH, increased expression of cytochrome was demonstrated. In patients who do not consume alcohol, fatty acids and / or ketones may be possible mediators of cytochrome induction. Their influence explains the increased activity of CYP 2E1, which is observed on the background of a diet rich in fat.

Cytokines and endotoxins are also involved in the pathogenesis of NASH and the subsequent development of cirrhosis, which begin to be produced under the influence of endotoxins. Interleukins (IL) –6 and –8 and other TNF – inducible cytokines are also involved in this process.

The course of the disease can be improved by taking metronidazole, especially in such cases when it has developed as a result of prolonged parenteral nutrition, imposition of ileojejunal anastomosis, and in some other cases. This confirms that in the pathogenesis of NASH, endotoxin-induced cytokines and endotoxemia are of great importance.

The earliest sign of fibrosis is most likely the activation of liver lipocytes (Ito cells) in the subendothelial space of Disse. Lipocyte activation is caused by a number of factors, among which there is the influence of POL products. As a result, lipocyte proliferation and the launch of a cascade of processes that lead to the formation of fibrous tissue occurs.

Diagnosis of hepatosis

Fatty liver disease can be clearly diagnosed using computed tomography and ultrasound of the liver.

In most cases, it is possible to assume the presence of fatty liver disease by analyzing the history and establishing the causes of metabolic disorders, as well as an enlarged liver.

Significant help in the diagnosis can provide violations of the glycemic profile, increased cholesterol, triglyceridemia.

There are no specific clinical and biochemical signs of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

It is quite difficult to assess the degree of inflammation and fibrosis using ultrasound. Consequently, the basis for the diagnosis of NASH can serve as a puncture biopsy of the liver.

The diagnosis of NASH can be made in the presence of three symptoms:

no alcohol abuse

histological characteristics (the most significant is the presence of changes similar to alcoholic hepatitis, as well as fatty degeneration),

data from clinical studies, on the basis of which other chronic liver diseases can be excluded.

Diagnosing NASH involves active searches and the exclusion of other causes that can cause abnormal liver function. Often, on the basis of a carefully collected history, liver damage with alcohol or drugs can be suspected.

For the detection of viral hepatitis should conduct a serological survey, which allows to identify viral hepatitis. It is also necessary to study the metabolism of iron and conduct genetic testing, which will allow to distinguish between NASH and idiopathic (hereditary) hemochromatosis.

Other studies include the determination of the level and phenotype of a-antitrypsin, antinuclear and anti-mitochondrial bodies, the determination of the level of ceruloplasmin. The results of such studies reveal potential causes of liver disease.

Puncture liver biopsy allows to distinguish between fatty hepatosis and NASH with non-specific reactive hepatitis and chronic viral hepatitis C, granulomatosis.

The expediency of such a study for predicting NASH is also beyond doubt, since for this an important role is played by the severity of histological changes.

Uncomplicated fatty degeneration has a favorable prognosis. Pathological fat deposition stops a few weeks after its cause is eliminated.

The efficiency of patients with in most cases saved. If fatty degeneration is pronounced, it reduces the resistance of patients to anesthesia, surgical interventions, as well as to infectious diseases.

Prolonged exposure to metabolic disorders, hyperlipidemia and other hepatotoxic factors can lead to progression of inflammatory changes, up to the development of NASH and micronodular cirrhosis.

Different authors indicate different data on the frequency of progression of liver fibrosis and inflammatory diseases, it ranges from 5-38%. During the 10-year follow-up period in patients with NASH, liver fibrosis progression with subsequent development of cirrhosis was found in 20-40% of cases.

Factors that increase the risk of liver fibrosis with NASH:

significantly increased body mass index

increased levels of oxidative stress (glutathione, malonic dialdehyde),

increase in serum levels of glucose, AlaT, triglycerides.

In 1995, a comparison was made of the survival rate of patients with NASH and alcoholic hepatitis. The authors (A. Propst et al.) Note that the probability of 5- and 10-year survival in NASH is significantly higher than in alcoholic hepatitis (67 and 59% versus 38 and 15%, respectively).

Fatty hepatosis treatment

Treatment of fatty hepatosis mainly comes down to a change in lifestyle - a transition to proper nutrition, a reduction in alcohol consumption, and an increase in physical activity. The whole complex of measures is aimed at normalizing energy metabolism in liver cells, protecting cell membranes from destruction and stabilizing the work of the liver as a whole. Therefore, the patient must remember that the primary task is to rid the liver of fats.

Usually, treatment ends successfully, but after it the body may need long-term support in the form of special procedures.

Prevention of steatosis (hepatosis) is quite simple:

  • It should be properly and balanced to eat,
  • Timely treat diseases of the stomach and intestines, preventing them from going into the chronic stage,
  • If possible, avoid affecting the liver of toxic substances, especially alcohol.
  • In the case of long-term use of hormones, you should additionally take drugs designed to protect the liver and improve its performance.

Main groups of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of liver diseases - hepatoprotectors: Ursosan, Liv 52, etc. For such drugs, as a rule, use high-quality natural base, such as UDCA. If you follow the instructions for use, you can direct their action to protect the liver cells, and, above all, to stabilize their membranes.

Directly to improve fat metabolism at the cellular level, the drug Ursosan is prescribed.

Special preparations from the group of statins have a more powerful effect in terms of normalizing fat metabolism, but as a side effect, they themselves can increase the activity of transaminases.

Therefore, in cases where they are deliberately elevated (steatohepatitis) or increased during treatment, Ursosan should be used.

Diet for fatty hepatosis

In most cases, with fatty hepatosis, doctors recommend that you follow the “Table No. 5” diet. In her normal daily energy value (up to 2800 kcal) is combined with a complete rejection of fat, fried and alcohol. The basis of the diet consists of soups, porridges, lean meat and vegetables in boiled or stewed form, as well as steamed. Excluded products:

  • causing intestinal distention,
  • containing coarse fiber,
  • rich in extractive substances that stimulate the secretion of digestive juices.

It should be eaten in small portions, but quite often - 4-5 times a day.

Prevention of hepatosis

Hepatoses most often result from excessive alcohol consumption and poor diet.

Less common causes are endocrine disruption, effects on the body of organophosphorus compounds, insecticides and other toxic substances. The greatest danger to liver cells is alcohol. Persons who abuse them are usually malnourished, so two adverse factors act on the liver at once.

In the process of treating certain diseases, such as tuberculosis, drug-induced liver steatosis often develops. The reason is that the patient uses antibiotics, hormones and other drugs. A role is also played by the lack of oxygen, which the liver suffers with tuberculosis and other pulmonary diseases.

Endocrine diseases are another cause of steatosis. At risk - the elderly, especially those who are sick with diabetes. Fatty degeneration of the liver can also develop with disorders in the thyroid gland, with obesity, and with a deficiency of vitamins and microelements.

It is very important that the diet is balanced: the content of animal proteins should not be excessive or insufficient against the background of total caloric content. Patients suffering from chronic pancreatitis, get steatosis much more often than those who do not have chronic diseases of the digestive tract. According to statistics, every fourth patient suffering from chronic pancreatitis develops steatosis. It is also common in people with heart and vascular problems.

The process of degeneration of liver cells into fat

Fatty hepatosis, liver obesity, dystrophic changes in the liver cells are all synonymous with the process of accumulation of triglycerides (simple fats) in the liver cells.

Under the influence of alcohol, fatty and smoked food, medication, a lazy lifestyle, factors that sooner or later lead to fatty hepatosis. Perhaps one of the most dangerous factors and causes of fatty hepatosis are toxins that enter the body. Toxic substances, toxins, are sent in a direct stream to the liver.

The liver is an organ that includes many functions, and one of them is the function of processing, decomposition, neutralization. Any substance that gets into the body is strictly controlled by the liver, which turns them into simple fats by splitting them. With a constant flow of excessive amounts of fat, fat accumulation in the liver is inevitable, hepatosis of the liver is the next stage in the development of an unfavorable diagnosis.

The accumulation of simple fats in the hepatocytes of the liver gradually begin their process of dystrophic transformation into fatty, dense tissue. Fatty dense tissue, becomes an essential barrier to the normal functionality of the liver to neutralize toxic substances and soon leads to liver dysfunction.

Liver dysfunction develops into fibrous processes of the liver tissue (formation of scar tissue). In the wake of fibrosis develops cirrhosis of the liver. Cirrhosis of the liver, a disease that is quite difficult to treat with a final recovery, in advanced forms is fatal. The proliferation of the connective parenchyma (liver tissue), captures the cells and completely replaces them. That is why it is so important to recognize hepatosis in the early stages of liver development.

There are three stages in the development of hepatosis:

  1. The first stage of fatty hepatosis is the occurrence of foci of accumulation of simple fats, fat cells. Fat cells can be located in focal lesions at small distances from each other. The first stage is the process of diffuse formations of fatty hepatosis.
  2. The second stage of fatty hepatosis is the process of a substantial increase in the area of ​​accumulation of hepatosis cells, the first proliferation of connective tissue between hepatocytes.
  3. The third stage of fatty hepatosis is the process of formation of pronounced areas of connective fibrous tissue, a large accumulation of fat cells.

Obesity and other causes of hepatosis

Eliminating the disease - this means finding first of all the cause of the disease and trying to completely remove it. The purpose of therapy depends on the primary cause of the disease. Obesity, one of the characteristic causes of hepatosis of the liver, leading to fibrosis and cirrhosis of the liver. Consider the various causes that lead to the transformation of normal liver tissue into fat.

Causes of the disease due to metabolic fat, lipid metabolism. Lipid metabolism disorders include:

  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus (insulin-dependent patients),
  • Obesity 2-3 degrees,
  • Abnormal increase in blood lipids (hypertriglyceridemia).

The liver is the filter of our body to neutralize toxic effects. All antagonistic substances, toxins trapped in the body, undergo a procedure of neutralization and decomposition. With an overflow of such substances, the liver stops coping with this function. Excessive, systematic use of ethanol-containing beverages (alcohol) leads to fatty hepatosis.

The cause of the disease hepatosis of the liver, are, including the factors of radiation in unfavorable areas with high levels of background radiation.

Excessive intake of fats in food, excessive passion for sweets, fatty meat, fish, smoked foods causes a violation of lipid metabolism in the body, including this applies to people who do not consume enough protein in their daily diet.

It may seem strange that hepatosis of the liver can also occur during fasting, but fasting, like an unhealthy diet, causes a violation of lipid metabolism and also leads to hepatosis of the liver. Mothers of young girls should pay attention that thirst for a model, not rarely anorexic appearance leads to serious consequences from the reaction of the body.

Drug hepatosis is a form of hepatosis with long-term use of drugs aimed at antibacterial effects, in other words, drugs of the antibiotic group.

Taking antibiotics under the obligatory control of a physician, it is imperative to follow a diet, in the diet of which should include pribiotics, substances that protect the healthy intestinal, bacterial flora of the body.

Another important factor and cause of hepatosis is the excessive action of adrenal hormones, endocrine system disease, thyroxine deficiency, thyroid hormone. Preparations of aldosterone, cortisol, corticosterones, which are prescribed, are taken under constant control by dosage in order to avoid the possibility of diagnosis - hepatic hepatosis.

Methods of diagnosis of the disease hepatosis

Perhaps it was at this moment when you read this article that you noticed some signs of hepatosis. Do not hesitate, consult your doctor.

The most common diagnosis is an ultrasound examination of the liver, which shows characteristic changes in the liver in the direction of increasing size and good echogenicity of the organ. The echogenicity of any organ in the body with ultrasound, shows the inflammatory processes occurring in the diseased organ.

The doctor will prescribe a diagnosis that includes:

  1. Ultrasound examination of the liver, captures echo signs of fatty hepatosis, an increase in the organ.
  2. Liver biopsy is a puncture of the liver tissue, taken by inserting a special needle with a tip to collect a minimal portion of the tissue of the affected liver tissue. The procedure is performed with anesthesia of the right hypochondrium (injection with anesthetic). A positive result on hepatosis of the liver is the detection of fat cells. A contraindication to a biopsy is poor blood coagulability, the blood coagulability test is necessarily taken from all patients before taking a puncture. Poor blood coagulability - possible bleeding at the time of puncture of the liver tissue, after the procedural period.
  3. CTM - computed tomography allows to determine the affected, enlarged areas of the liver.
  4. MRI - magnetic resonance imaging using the physical phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance in the study of internal organs and tissues.

Pregnancy and hepatosis of the liver

Fatty hepatosis occurs during pregnancy, due to the hormonal background of the woman, namely failures in the hormonal system of the body. The use of excessive amounts of food at the time of pregnancy, an integral cause of the possibility of the disease hepatosis. Overeating, threatens with acute fatty hepatosis of a pregnant woman, briefly in medical terminology it is written as OZHGB. Acute fatty hepatosis leads to serious complications during pregnancy. Possible death of women during labor and delivery.

The dangerous period of fatty hepatosis is observed between 29 and 38 weeks of pregnancy. These terms are conditional, since the disease can manifest itself at earlier stages of pregnancy, before the 29th week.

The icteric signs of the disease during pregnancy are one of the most important:

  • Yellowing of the skin,
  • Yellow color sclera,
  • The whites of the eyes have a yellow tint,
  • Light cal,
  • Dark urine (the color of strong tea),
  • General weakness
  • Malaise,
  • Bitterness in the mouth,
  • The appearance of heartburn with constant manifestation,
  • Bouts of nausea
  • Vomiting with and without bile
  • Discomfort in the right hypochondrium, feeling of heaviness, dull pain,
  • Loss of appetite.

For any of the possible symptoms of Jaundice, it is necessary to consult a doctor who observes a pregnant woman throughout pregnancy, for advice and further treatment therapy.

Recommendations for the treatment of fatty hepatosis

To change your habitual and not quite correct life in excessive consumption of sweets, fats, alcohol, the absence of any sports loads is the first step to recovery from liver obesity. Treatment of fatty liver hepatosis is proper nutrition and adherence to a special diet. The less fat, alcohol, toxins will be ingested, the maximum effect will be during treatment. To relieve the liver of fat, the patient's primary task for liver obesity.

Dietary food is best to start at the early stage of the development of the disease of hepatosis, but one should not assume that with obesity to a higher degree, you need to abandon the diet and take only medication.

Diet effectively fights triglycerides (simple fats) and prevents them from disrupting the normal processing and neutralization functions of the liver.

Dietary food in the diagnosis of hepatosis of the liver must be boiled or steamed, baked foods are allowed. Consumption of at least 1.5 liters of fluid per day, not counting drunk compotes, jellies, teas and other beverages. All drinks should not be carbonated. Gas affects flatulence in the gastrointestinal tract, which adversely affects the functionality of the stomach and liver. Especially do not forget about this at the time of pregnancy for women. Salt with dietary nutrition is minimized.

Anything in terms of products is FAT, a high percentage content of anything should be excluded.

Foods that need to be excluded in the diagnosis of fatty hepatosis:

  • Cottage cheese,
  • Sour cream,
  • Hard cheeses
  • Pork,
  • Duck,
  • Goose,
  • Kidneys,
  • Brain,
  • Mutton,
  • Som
  • Mackerel,
  • Womer
  • Sterlet,
  • Herring,
  • Glosick
  • Capelin
  • Legumes,
  • Beans,
  • Onion and green onions,
  • Garlic,
  • Radish,
  • Sorrel,
  • Spinach,
  • Any conservation,
  • Pickles,
  • Mushrooms in any form,
  • Flour products,
  • Cakes,
  • Chocolate,
  • Buns,
  • Patties,
  • Cocoa,
  • Carbonated drinks,
  • Strong tea,
  • Coffee without milk
  • Spices,
  • Broths meat and fish,
  • White cabbage,
  • Seasonings,
  • Salt,
  • Alcohol,

All drinks and cooked meals should be at room temperature. Cold consumption is strictly prohibited in the diagnosis of hepatosis of the liver.

Foods that need to be included in the diet:

All foods should be non-fat, low-fat, with a minimum percentage of fat content.

  • Kefir,
  • Cottage cheese,
  • Yogurt,
  • Sour cream,
  • Milk,
  • Semolina,
  • Oatmeal, bran,
  • Buckwheat,
  • Rice
  • Hard cheese
  • Milk soup,
  • Vegetable soup,
  • Summer soup without fatty meat and zazharki,
  • Broccoli,
  • Red cabbage,
  • Zucchini,
  • Carrot,
  • Tomatoes (1-2 small per day),
  • Lazy dumplings,
  • Pasta in soups,
  • Potatoes (1-2 per day),
  • Eggs - protein omelet,
  • One boiled (medium soft) per day,
  • Honey,
  • Paste,
  • Marshmallow
  • Kissel,
  • Uzvar,
  • Stewed fruits of non-acidic fruits and berries
  • Coffee with milk,
  • Not strong tea,
  • The berries are not sour,
  • Fruit juice
  • Fruit is not sour,
  • Decoction of wild rose.

Rosehip decoction is one of the main drinks throughout the entire diet and further dietary intake, which you may have to adhere to throughout your life. Rosehip has excellent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hematopoietic properties. A decoction of wild rose actively helps the liver to remove toxins from the body.

The recipe of the rose hips is very simple. To prepare, take 100-200 grams of rosehip, rinse, brew with boiling water in a thermos. Leave to infuse throughout the day. Every day, take a decoction before or after eating, 0.5 cups in a warm form.

Pharmacies sell hood extract from hips, called "Holosas", which completely facilitates the preparation of broth from the hips. Dissolve one teaspoon per cup of warm water. Take 0.5 cups before or after meals.

The healing properties of pine nuts have been known for a long time. Pine nut is a very good helper antioxidant properties, cedar nut oil well strengthens the liver hepatocytes, providing them with a beneficial effect on recovery. A teaspoon pine nuts a day, for one month. In the future, you need to take a break, and be sure to consult with your doctor on further use of pine nuts.

Hepatomegaly, or the diagnosis of hepatosis of the liver with a characteristic increase in the organ, stimulates very well in the direction of decreasing size - juice, infusion of lemon. Preparation: 1-2 lemons, wash well under warm water. Using a fine blender grater, rub together with the zest to a slurry state. Pour 0.5 boiling water (1 lemon), respectively, 1 liter of water per (2 lemons). Leave the prepared broth overnight, 12 hours. After the decoction is infused, it must be drained through cheesecloth and pressed. Take one tablespoon between meals. Take the infusion of lemon should be no more than 3 days. Break lemon juice should be at least 3-4 days.

Dietary treatment, adherence to medical drugs prescribed by a doctor, an examination in the prescribed period, medical tests for fat in the body, repeated examination procedures using ultrasound, CT, MRI will always be able to determine the health status of your liver, and give you the opportunity to monitor the effectiveness of the prescribed treatment.

Hepatosis pregnant

When a woman is expecting a child, the liver experiences increased loads. The reason - a violation of the formation and outflow of bile due to the increase in the amount of estrogen, the processing of waste products of the fetus. This is observed in the last weeks of pregnancy. Hepatosis is poorly diagnosed due to the fact that it is difficult to carry out palpation - an enlarged uterus interferes, and many research methods are contraindicated.

Hepatosis in pregnancy often has hereditary roots. Manifested by skin itching, a feeling of heaviness, lightening fecal masses. Possible yellowing of the sclera, nausea, pain in the liver. Fat form is rare. Mostly cholestatic view, which is observed:

  • bile thickening
  • violation of cholesterol metabolism,
  • reduced biliary tract tone.

Alcoholic

One of the most common liver diseases is alcoholic hepatosis. When ingested, alcohol is converted into substances that destroy hepatocytes, responsible for the removal of toxins, the production of bile. When connective tissue grows in the cells, it means that all processes are disturbed. If the disease is not treated, cirrhosis of the liver will develop. Manifestation of hepatosis pains in the right side, arises:

  • feeling of heaviness
  • bloating
  • uncontrollable irritability,
  • nausea,
  • weakness,
  • decrease in performance.

At the beginning of the development of the disease symptoms are not observed. Patients may accidentally find out about it, undergoing ultrasound on another occasion. The disease is diagnosed by echoes. Symptoms of fatty hepatosis of the liver are manifested in the second stage of the development of the disease, while observing:

  • nausea
  • heaviness on the right in hypochondrium,
  • poor coordination
  • severe pain, nausea,
  • bloating
  • rash,
  • reduced visual acuity
  • constipation
  • aversion to food
  • weakness,
  • the monotony of speech
  • signs of jaundice.

Folk remedies

Doctors advise at home to use folk recipes. How to treat liver hepatosis with herbs and plants? Recommend:

  • daily drink tea with melissa, mint,
  • eat a teaspoon of peeled pine nuts,
  • there is more greenery: parsley, lettuce, dill,
  • drink rosehip berries infusion,
  • Brew milk thistle - a spoon for 2 cups boiling water.

Good splits fat fasting drink fresh carrot juice. Herbal collection is very effective, for the preparation of which you need to pour 2 spoons of the mixture into a thermos in the evening, add 1.5 liters of boiling water. Drink a decoction for the day. The composition contains in parts:

  • series - 3,
  • licorice root - 4,
  • sage - 2,
  • raspberry leaves - 3,
  • wormwood - 2,
  • birch leaves - 3,
  • yarrow - 1,
  • pharmaceutical chamomile - 1,
  • calamus root - 1,
  • linden - 1.

Watch the video: Fatty Liver Disease. Q&A (January 2020).